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Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

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Post  udhësi Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:17 am

ciers in the history since the reign of Tarquinius Priscus. If they had heard of the Greeks only about year 600, they would undoubtedly have given them the name, that consequently the Greeks were given to themselves; they would have called them Hellènes.

We tried to prove in the first pages of our work that the true direction of the word Tpa.ixoî was: old men, the old ones. However, if it is constant that Dodone and its surroundings were the oldest center of Greek civilization, it is necessary to acknowledge that its inhabitants were well named. Named by which? Obviously by those which had left these trimmings, to further begin, in another fatherland, a new existence. The institution of the worm sacrum, if expensive on Celtes, was essential on Hellènes d' Epire, tightened in narrow small valleys, and wrapped of all shares of warlike and cruel populations. They thus colonized early the southernmost and Western coasts of Italy. It is what is proven by the comparison of the geographical names. Let us quote in only some borrowed from the book of Hahn (p. 330).

We find there:

In Epire (Is), In TApulie (Western),

Penestae, Apenestae,

Acheron, Acherontia,

Bantia, Bantia,

Bari (p. Antivari), 'Bariurn,

Drunk killed, Butuntum,

Genusus (river), Genusium,

Scampae, Scamnum

Chechmate (river),



Brattia (insula),
Mons Lacmon,

Buthrotum (city),






(even people that them

Matinus (mount), Matini

iïoevTénw of the alb.


West (Lucanie):



Lacinium (promont.)
Hylius, (river),
Butrotus (river),
Parthenius (portus),


Egesta, Aïysna., Segesta,


The majority of these names are pelasgic, and they make us believe that the irruption of the Greeks, come from north, determined an emigration of the former inhabitants of the country in the Western areas. However the Greek names do not miss in the list of Mr. Hahn; such are Penestœ, Acheron, Pandosia, and perhaps Parthini, if the Greek vafîévos, was attached with reason by Benfey (I, 585) to TÔpTct£, wi>pTi {, scr. prithuka, prathuka the small one of a ventrée range, one and for the direction with Latin ju- vencus. The mixture of the two races thus appears to have started as of the first day; but the Greek element initially did not prevail in the colonization of Italy (1).

It appears manifest indeed, that the Greeks themselves went preferably to the East, that they sought this East shining whose fame told the wonders. They had to reach the Aegean Sea easily, and to be in connection with Phéniciens whose vessels adulterated along the coasts with lolkos, in the Maliaque gulf, Euripe, the gulfs of Corinth, Argos, etc Partis Aulis, TANAGRA, the antique Graïa, Phéniciens, contrary to their practice, had penetrated in the interior of the grounds and frame Cadmée, the famous citadel which dominated Thèbes. Who doncdanscestempsprimitifspouvaient being Grecsqui, the first, approached to Phéniciens and Ca riens, and who were formed with their contact? Who, if it is not the valid youth which, feeling with narrow in the deep small valleys of Epire where remained the “Old ones,” left them without regret? The latter, Graeci, TpeiiMi left

(1) We propose for the names pelasgic of this list, of which we did not treat yet in the course of our work, the following explanations:

Bantia of bandi-a, side, series: barium of bari grass, grass; Drunk killed out of botea unctuous clay and J alder; ground, world, people; Genussus probably of gannia heavy crop of fruits: Ulcinium of oulkjou wolf, or oulouku gutter, aqueduct; Arausium of jpevff' T bunch of grapes; Chaones, Chones of choni slit, crack of rock in Chaonie; Lacmon de Ijak I moisten; Hylli of it, yes star: Buthrotus of boterea (batrea) hearth, dwelling; Read known for Lisbos. Compare \ ifff ea. source of warm water. Finally Siculi, if they are of pelasgic origin, of “ffntiiy I watch for, I spy.

to leave to the adventure the first, young people, the 'shves-wolf; because, it is them, Yavanas of India, the lavan of the Semitic traditions which we find here. If one doubted of our assertion, one would have only to read again passage already quoted, by us, of Hérodote (V. 58,59), where this last presents the Ionian ones to us as the pupils of Phéniciens who taught the letters and the use of the writing to them, well before time when Pheidon, king d' Argos become dorien, introduced into Greece the weights and measures of the Babylonia antique and made beat currency, always with the example of these same Phéniciens. Hérodote claims to have seen in the temple of Isménien Apollo, in Thèbes, an inscription in characters cadméens, on a tripod offered to God by Host, when it returned from his forwarding against Téléboens:

“Has|HÇlT/>îw fi” ârl

It quotes two more other inscriptions of the same kind, of which most recent would be of Laodamas, wire of Eteocle, under the reign of which Phéniciens were expelled by the men of Argos, and would have taken refuge at Encheléens in Illyrie. Though one can think of the authenticity of these inscriptions of the antiquated character, they went back undoubtedly to the Almighty antiquity, and there is not null serious reason to question the old relations which had been established between the men come from Palestine on a side, and the Ionian ones of the other.

The word laon, lafon, are a significant word among Greeks of the first times; it marked youth, the force, the glare. Those which it indicated, were often regarded as the savers, the guards of a whole city, like regenerators of déchues families, heroes or great geniuses that accompanied happiness and prosperity. 'là.f” t> does not differ from Iason, name of the famous chief of Argonautes and avenger of his Aeson father, that by a phonetic nuance. The plural genitive Kovf*far or Mavffa.uav of the Greek bloveu., and that of Musa Latin, Musarum, are absolutely identical. We will still quote 'laeiav, the favourite of Déméter, then the verb îâ.ofji.a.1 I cured, the substantive iaurpes, then iava I alleviate, I calm, I make rest.

But it is understood extremely well that word 'I.W, though it is the same one as Sanskrit Yavan, Yuvan and Latin juven-is, ceased being a name appellative in Greek, precisely because it had ended up being generally applied like proper name; as it is as understood, as Latin, for a similar reason, replaced by other terms the ancient words ynpa. Kt, ypa.ilx, ypa.i- K.Ôs. Where the Romain said juven-is, the Greek made use of the vém terms, vsoivia.s, /j.eipa.t; where the Greek employed the words yépav, yiïf>a.<, ynpctiôf, Latin said senex, priscus vetus, etc

One will now give a more exact an account of the movement of pride with which emigrants of Athens, in departure for Asia - Minor, Ioniens were entitled. This name was then strong in honor in the race which seized still perfectly the primitive direction of them. It was a question of going from front, like heroes; of idiot

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Post  udhësi Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:17 am

to quérir new grounds, by letting the “old hand” arrange those which they had always occupied. There is no doubt that in the paramount ages the word Yavanas, 'lâ.otie< was not marked, each time a bold, bold company even, had been solved and carried out. One will also admit without difficulty, which the glare which this name threw had its intermittencies, which it was not always affected with the same group, even less with the whole Greek race. One can suppose that it belonged to the more or less compact columns of emigrants, who from Paropanise and the Caucasus moved towards the <t Far-West” as it appears to have belonged later to Minyens d' Iolkos, in Thébains, with those of Orchomé- our, and as it became the authentic denomination of the Athenians and the colonists of theMinor one. Yavanas of India thus occupy an authentic and sizeable place in the most remote horizons of the primitive history. The lavan of the Bible arrives only in second line. When the poets, the historians of Greece reproduce it, it already underwent the modifications which the phonic harmonious one of their language imposed to him.

§10. - Ionian Homère.

Remain a question to clear up. How is it made that Homère, in which them Lacédémoniens themselves recognized “an Ionian man” did not mention those who were its compatriots in the narrowest direction of the word, that in some passages of a doubtful authenticity? How is it made, that in the enumeration of the Greek forces joined together under the walls of Troy, he forgets the name of this lonie which formed the confederation of the twelve cities indicated later under the name of Achaïe? How is it made that it places it very whole under the sceptre of Agamemnon, by calling simply it the edge of the sea, “fy< “aôj? Ilyaàcela, if we are not mistaken, a double reason, a reason of esthetics initially, a political reason then.

Homère depicts us Greece such as it was presented to its spirit, at the time where Pélopides extended their domination on all the southernmost peninsula, where the Achaens of Phthiotide passed for the most valorous men of the race. The name of Ionian then did not have the repercussion which it had later; it yielded it to that of the Achaens. Homère was artist too consumed to confuse the character of the two different ages. It was noticed, that while speaking about Thèbes, it was expressed in a particular way; he said: vn' B &n@a.7v. The city was then in ruins, having been destroyed by the descendants of the Seven-Chiefs. The inhabitants of Béotie are for him Cadméens, Minyens; it is only once he speaks, and like inadvertently, of the Philistines who occupied the country during the great invasion of North; still it is not of course that the passage is not interpolated. Homère was undoubtedly a naive poet; but it was not it in its art; he knew some, at least instinct, all the great principles and even his resources most intimate, and he could have shown again some all those which reason today on these matters with great reinforcement of philosophy and with the assistance of the terms of the school.

Homère thus should not have spoken about the Ionian ones, because it was not necessary for him to speak about it; because, different in that from the modern poets, it avoided any occasion to speak about him and as of his; because he was devoted to his work which was to safeguard its name. - But Homère appears to be also guided by political reasons. He lived, according to testimonys more some which one could join together, the town of Smyrna, inhabited by the Wind ones, but removed later with the latter by the Ionian ones of Colophon. The poet attended, one could not doubt it, the small court of the descendants of Agamemnon with Cymé; its MUSE, as I mentioned above, celebrated the important facts of Pélopides. It was well accomodated by Greeks of any language and any origine, and undoubtedly of Doriens themselves. It thus had a serious interest to avoid any allusion which could already probably point out the very-real competition existing between the three confederations which divided the Western coast of theMinor one. Its imagination referred to a glorious past for all Hellènes, with a war, to which all the cantons of Greece claimed to have taken share; at one time when all, with the distance where one was, appeared plain in the desire and the intention reversing the hereditary enemy.

Moreover the poetic language of Homère and the Home wrinkles appears to have been as of highest antiquity like the common heritage of all the Greeks. It is certain that this language differs deeply non-seulement from the dialect dorien of Sparte, but to judge .d' après of it worms of Alcée and Sappho still of that of the Achaens of the EP loponèse, and certainly also of the idiom spoken in the past in the Attic. The language of the poets epic can be softened besides under the lenient sky of Asia, in contact with tribes which, for the majority, spoke themselves about the languages to the soft intonations.

One will not be mistaken much by supposing, that the Ionian dialect of Homère was identical in its features essential with that of which made use old the aèdes Piériens of Olympe and the Parnassus, Lebédos and Daulis: Orphées, Thamyris, Philammon. Phémios and Démodoque themselves continued only one already established tradition. The songs, in which one celebrated the exploits of Hercules and the voyage of Argonautes were to resemble, so much is little, in Iliade and the Odyssey for the style and the rate/rhythm. Hésiode which lived in Askra some generations after Homère, composed its songs in the language of this last - I do not speak about some unperceivable there modifications that the poet could introduce without his knowledge - and it composed them in the middle of populations which spoke the thick dialect about the Philistines. One is thus brought to admit that a language nobler than the idioms which were of use in the cantons of Greece, developed, by the efforts of old the aèdes and soothsayers, within his laones primitive, trained in contact with Phéniciens and of the Asian races. The civilization whose walls of Tirynthe, lions of Mycènes and channels of Orchoménos make a testimony bright, was certainly higher than hard manners and a little primitive installation of the invaders who reversed it. Bragged of North threatened to choke this early spring that the worship of Apollo and his oracle with Delphes, that the plays of Olympie and the poetry of the aèdes succeeded in heating.

§ 11. - Small Achaens.

One generally has too an little idea of the events of the high antiquity; and I do not doubt, that one too much did not reduce the part played by the Greeks at the time of the Trojan War and even this war. Why men who had known to find their way since the sources of Indus to the headlands of Hammers out and of Ténare, they would not have followed on their “dugouts” the vessels of Phéniciens and they could not have settled with their example on the coasts of Lycie, Cilicie and even on the island of Cyprus. To and from, the mixture of the people and the races on the edges of the Mediterranean is so old that it is lost in the mists of time. Are there thus serious reasons to question the tradition which makes lead by Teucer of the Greek colonists to Salamine in the middle of Semitic and Ethiopian populations? Because the Greeks colonized more vigorously a few centuries later Cyclades, Sporades, the coasts of the Euxine Sea, is this a reason to deny faculty to them to have

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Post  udhësi Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:18 am

been able to be established with far in more small number at one former time? Apart from Salamine and of Célendéris in Cilicie, which, as we said to book II, bears the same name as the old port of Trézène (called later Pogon the beard), we find in same trimmings a town of Aegae which has homonyms in Achaïe, Eolide, Macedonia (this last city contained the sepulchres of the kings of the country), in Eubée, laLocride and Laconie (Myctiau). We find Mallos there on Pyrame with an oracle of Amphiloque, wire of Amphiaraûs and Mopsos, the soothsayer of Argonautes. This last passed to have founded the city; one showed the famous tombs of both there “vates”. More at the west Mop- suestia was located, and on the edges of the sea, Soli. Another Soli, of an origin apparently more recent, rose in the island of Cyprus. There we meet, apart from the town of Salamine and of a mount Olympos, already mentioned with book II, the founded town of Gourion (1) by Argiens and Citium where the Palestinian population had remained a long time dominating. However, the Greeks were to be established for an unmemorable time there, since for the Genesis Kittim is a son of Yavan exactly like Tar- shish, place in which we believed to recognize, not Tartessus, but Tarsus of Cilicie. This last city, according to Strabon, had been built by of Argiens whose Triptolème would have been the chief. If one could add faith to the traditions of the Athenians, Triptolème, wire of king Keleos and Metanire, would have been the friend of Challenge) Hérodote, IV, 153.

méter and the founder of the mysteries of Eleusis. - II in any case has there a word which testifies in favour of the high antiquity of the Greek colonies in Cilicie: it is known that the whole of those which were founded in the Southern Italy called later/*eyà.w 'em.o.s large Greece. - Eh well, the Greek inhabitants of Cilicie bore in the past the name depetits Achaens (1), 'T^A-^mal. However, Achaens, such was the name by which one designated the Greeks at the time of the Trojan War and perhaps even before this war; the Vtto preposition seems to indicate the modest part played by these colonies in the history. - Thus the end of this study joined its starting point and brings back for us towards these trimmings where we found installed, as of an unmemorable time, Lélèges and Pélasges, these more former inhabitants of Greece. It is at side and in the middle of them that we see to be established the Semites initially, then finally Hellènes.

(1) Hérodote, VII, 91.


We tried to prove, in the first books of this work, that Greece was, before to the Greeks, inhabited by a population which differed from it by the language, the religion and manners; that this population did not occupy only the peninsula of Balkan, but which it extended in Asia Mineure until Halys; that in Europe it had advanced on a side into Pannonia; that other, it had been established on the southernmost coasts of Italy and in the Western part of Sicily; that it had essaimé until in Gaules and perhaps even as far as Spain.

This population does not appear to be grouped nowhere in compact masses. Eminently penetrable and fusible, if one can speak thus, it was let start early by tribes of the north (Bithyniens, Phrygiens, perhaps Armenian), which drove back it about midday; by Semites of any source, - Assyrians, Lydians, Ciliciens, Phéniciens- which dominated it by their higher civilization and partially by the weapons. It appears to have received in its centre, at one prehistoric time, of the colonists come from Lybie and perhaps even of Egypt.

Of all these immigrations and influences from abroad, those of the Semites were undoubtedly most considerable. It is especially from the thirteenth one and of the twelfth century that is felt the action of the Assyrians, the Lydians and Phéniciens on the inhabitants of Asia Mineure and the peninsula of Balkan. But one can affirm that actually it goes up well beyond the first information provided by the history.

The Greeks came, in third place, to superimpose itself on a population already strongly mixed. They had to find Cariens and Phéniciens installed everywhere on the coasts and the islands, maintaining the relations followed with the natural ones of the country; without what is it probable that they would have let them take foot on the ground which they came to occupy themselves? We presented, in the first book, which had been, first of all, according to us, their relationship with the primitive race; how little-with-little they had succeeded in driving back and finally to expel all those of this race which they had not been able to be assimilated. In the fifth book, the last, we tried to restore with the first Greeks of Greece their true, their older name.

This name, according to our opinion at least, was lavan, Yavanas, 'léuves. Being of Aryan origin, this name should not have been to them given by Semites. They took it with their departure of Bactriane; they carried it a long time with pride. Their brothers of Gange and Indus never indicated them differently. This is to say that the name of

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Post  udhësi Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:19 am

was, as of the beginning, the generic name of the whole people? We would not dare to affirm it. Greece, as soon as it is occupied by them, offers the same degree of parcelling out as Pendschab and especially that the peninsula of Gange. We hear about Thesprotes, Thessaliens, Minyens, Magnètes, Myrmi- gifts, Doriens even, but not the Ionian ones, of Hellènes or Greeks taken in a general direction. The name the Ionian ones, of much oldest of the three, seems to reappear each time it is about a migration, of an adventure to be undertaken, a colony to be founded, of a bold action to achieve. When groups of youth warriors leave the “old hand” of Dodone (Cpa.ix.oi), to go to the front of Phéniciens of the islands and Cadmée, when they separate from the hordes and that they leave the boroughs of Pélasges, to found, following the example Semites, stations along the coasts of the Peloponnese, these is Ioniens that they want to be called. It is under this name that they are presented in the history. A man courageous and loved Gods frees it his birthplace from the tyrant who oppresses it, restores it the throne of his fathers, it is a lason. It is Jasion also that is called the beneficial hero who, with the assistance and by the favour of Déméter, teaches with the mortals to cultivate the ground, to fertilize it, to thus inaugurate a long era of prosperity and honest happiness.

It east 'let us lâons which the energetic and quarrelsome inhabitants of Marathon appear to be called; it is thanks to their contest that the Attic whole was unified and the pushed back hereditary enemy of the ground of Greece. It is the name of Ionian finally which asserted the young warriors who, after having defended the Attic against the invasion dorienne, left their fatherland, too small from now on to nourish all his/her children. After having carried the crowned fire which burned with the hearth of the Academy, they went to base, on the coasts of Anatolia, a series of colonies which made honor with the metropolis. Hérodote attempts to show that those which left then under the orders Nélée, were not by no means all of the same race, which they counted among them Greeks come from all the points of the peninsula, and even of the barbarians. He makes fun of the vanity of the emigrants proudly posting a name which he holds him, he says, in poor regard. He proves only by his scorn that the name the Ionian ones in the beginning was really attached to no tribe in particular, that he had a more general direction, and that this direction, him Hérodote, he did not know it any more or pretended not to know it.

He is not less true, than at the time where the large historian wrote, it was the name of Hellènes which threw the sharpest glare, and which it had made wrong to that of Ionian. The Athenians themselves made a point of being indicated preferably by the first, without remembering that it had been imposed to the men of their race, and with all the Greeks without exception, by the conquerors of north.





§ 1. - Greeks, Tpa.tx.oi. 1

§ 2. - Hellènes 4

§3. - The Achaens 'Axa' o' I Aeivaal. 7

§ 4. - Is necessary it to understand by the name of Pêlasges that of

The oldest Greeks? 9

§ 5. - Pêlasges do not constitute a race rather

distinct from that of the Greeks? ........ . 11

§ 6. '- Continuation of the same subject. The Tyrrhenian ones. 14

§ 7. - Continuation: Tyrrhenian, Lyciens, Sicilians.

Lélèges, Caucones, Dardaniens 17

§ 8. - The solution of problem 19

§ 9. - The solution of Sémitistes: Pélasges-Pélishtim. 25

§ 10. - Etymologies of the name of Pêlasges. nehanyai =: IIê-

KcLiyoi 30

| 11. - Lélèges and Pêlasges. 35

§ 12. - Continuation of the same subject. Lélèges, Pêlasges and

Grèco - Pêlasges 40

§ 13. - Albanian, the language of Lélèges, character of

this language 43


§ 1. - Lélèges according to Professor Kiepert, and them

Lycians according to Doctor Blau 49

^ 2. - Names of the lélèges cities formed using

anda root. 51

§ 3. - Names formed with anda. Vénètes… 58

§4. - Names formed with anda. The far “West. 63

§ 5. - Ending - ends - fan - bound. 67

§ 6. - Skipétars and Dardaniens. Teucer. For the third time the miles (Tramêlè) Tp<tyc/3flAof, Tpo/x/Ae (has, Tp<S “,

TpotÇw, M/XHTof 71

§ 7. - Note on the caste of Teucriens, and the castes similar in high antiquity. Olympes. 81 § 8. - The different word Lykos and its directions. Lycie, Lycaonie

Lycaon, Pisidie, Cob 82

§ 9. - Albanians-Lélèges and Lyciens according to

Doctor Blau 91

§ 10. - Proper names formed with the endings -

- xffffos, - ciffea., - iffffoç, etc… 95

§ 11. - Of some words which start with the syllable

Tev 98

§ 12. - Some isolated geographical names explained to

assistance of Albanian 100

§ 13. - New conjecture about the origin of the name

town of Athens 103

§ 14. - Tests to explain, using Albanian, some proper names people belonging especially to the mythical and heroic ages of Greece. 105 § 15. - Of some Albanian words stray in others

European idioms. 109


Introduction: African influences 121

§ 1. - Plants, minerals, imported animals of Africa. 122

§ 2. - African Divinities adored in Greece. 126

§ 3. - Continuation of same subject 130

§ 4. - Colonies 132

§ 5. - White Race and brown race 138

§ 6. - Winners and overcome. The ilotes 141


§ 1. - The age of flint, the polished stone and bronze in

Greece 145

§ 2. - Degree of culture of Pélasges before immigration

Greeks 150

§ 3. - Worships of Pélasges and Lélèges 158

Plaintive songs. Linos 160

Déméter 162

Apollo… 165

Artémis 169

Amazones 181

Athénê " 177

Hermes 178

Bacchus 182

Gods cariens: Zeus Labrandeus, Osogo 183

§ 4. - General Reflexions on the religion of Pélasges 184

§ 5. - The woman at Pélasges and Lélèges. 186

§ 6. - Moral Reaction of. Greeks and of the Hebrews…. 195

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§ 1. - lapetos. Genesis and oldest traditions

Greeks. 205

§ 2. - Seniority of the traditions of the Genesis about

lavan 210

§ 3. - First mention of Ionian in a historian

Greek 212

§ 4. - Ion and Thésée… 214

§ 5. - Continuation of the same subject. Thésée, Ion, Ionian. 219

§ 6. - Doriens in front of Athens 224

§7. - First appearance authenticates the Ionian ones in

history. Judgement of Hérodote 227

§ 8. - Genealogy of the Greek tribes. Wind, Doriens,

Ionian. Xuthus and Achaeus 232

§ 9. - Greeks and Ionian. The old ones and young people…. 239

§ 10. - Ionian Homère 245

§ 11. - Small Achaens 249

Conclusion 253



On page 191, read:

If the inscriptions lycians did not provide so far any proof in favour of the mode gynecocratic under which would have lived Termiles, on the other hand, two Greek inscriptions recently discovered in the island of Cos by Misters Rayet and Gorceix, going back about to the beginning of the era Macedonian, make known to us the names of a certain number of people having jointly a particular worship (that of Hécate Stratia, so that it appears), whose genealogy is indicated by the “carefullest” mention of their female ascent. Admittedly, at the time where these inscriptions were engraved, the use to make follow its name of that of his/her mother had disappeared for a long time non-seulement from the island of Cos, inhabited formerly by Cariens, but still of the hellenized part of the Decay; it had been able to be preserved however in certain worships cariens adopted by the Greek colonists. Hellènes were a long time a race very-nun and which touched only with fear with the things of the worship. When the Athenians removed the royalty, they left to the second archonte the name of king (Benfihsiis) at the same time as the top management of the crowned things which, formerly, had belonged to the royalty. The inscriptions of Halasarna and Isthmos, from which we come to speak, thus appear to be vestiges of a disappeared civilization, former to that Greek Des., civilization which Hérodote, Nicolas of Damas and even Polybe maintain us with full full knowledge of the facts. (See there Directory of Association for the encouragement of the Greek studies in France, 1875, p. 310-317.)


II is necessary to read everywhere, in this work, Etienne de Byzance for Stephan de Byzance; Cancanes for Cuckoos and Guègues for Guêgeois when it is about the substantive). It is necessary to read with the con'.rairc guégeois, when it is about the adjective, for example, a name guégeois, the dialect guégeois.

By leaving side in this edition the many misprints which slipped into the Greek words, we restrict ourselves to announce today those which shock more the eye and which deteriorate the direction or prevent from seizing it.

Page 4, line 8, read: to praise, instead of praising.
- 6, - 10, cut off the comma.
- 10, - 19, read: let us notice for auons considering.
- 11, - 11, - Too. - too.
- 14, - 7, - pelasgic - EP agic.
- 16, - 5, - Atys - Attys.
- 17, - 12, - pelasgic - pelagic.
- 27, - .3 (in. note), read: Hyksos for Hypsos.
- 28. - 16, read: Jl \ £, 'for 3l \ Y.
- - 17, - D*Ji \ Y.
- - 22, - 11X.
- - OUj ^~/* LJIl'/C F.
- 31. 16, - Denys for Denis.
- 31. - 22, - - Denys - Denis.
- 36, 18, - Antandros for Autandros.
- 46. - 23, - its for these.
- 62, - 15, to place the si^jne of the bracket afterwards
to cut off after sil.

Page 64, line 21, read: Andologenses for Andolagenses.

- 65, - 3, - Andelonenses - Andolonenses.

- 67, - 3 (in note), to place Strong castle before Koiiivf' A.

- 93. - 20, to add supplements after gynécocratie.

- 104, - 23, read: voirp 129 instead of: to see higher.

- 109, - 15, to add of after corruption.

- 115, - 21, - zende after form.

- 127, ~ 14. read: that for which.

- 132. - 25, - justified for justified.

- 136, - 10, - brother - brother.

- 148, - 9, - are explained for being explained.

- 150, - 2, - schwitzen) - sctiwitzen

- 159. - 15, - generations of the men, proclaims.

- 163. - 5, - Yavanas for Yaoonas.

- 164, - 20, - sunlight, for read

mière, of the sun.

- 185, - 14, - them for it.

- 248, - 13. - Orphée for Orphées.

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