Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:59 am

Albanian! Xylander quotes a certain number of it, - some can date from times when Goths occupied the country. There are even French words adopted and disfigured by the Germans, that the latter imported in Albanian. Such is the expression kaputt employed on any subject by people of Beyond the rhine, to say that a thing is lost, ruined; applied to the people, kaputt means tired, éreinté (garlic. abgeschla- geri). It would be believed that the Albanians not only adopted this word, but that they made of it a verb Mirain or MTrovf I picking, I tear off, I tear; then, I am tired, annoyed, éreinté (for example/* “Pt “all does not annoy me)? However, all the people poured in this kind of questions know that German kaputt is other thing only French cap, and that this expression indicated in the beginning large and large coat which one threw on the shoulders and the head of an individual, who had very lost with certain plays.

6. - The Greek x.a. [MT, (has Latin camera are attached by Benfey (Griech Wurzellexicon.II, p. 283) to a kmar root to be twisted, arched. He brings back to it the form kamredhem, body tortuous of the snake; and Persan the kamar girdles. However, Albanian xjepîp' means in the same way girdles, then crosses to support a cob wall, then generation, race (so to speak layer of men), then carries arched. It appears probable that this word was borrowed by the Greeks from Pélasges and not reciprocally.

We will add some strange coincidences of which the number could be increased further:

1. - The Italian words inganno fraud, îngannar to mislead, whose etymology remained obscure, are found in Albanian yeijîiy I mislead.

2. - A French word of most pleasant: a patapoufri' is not it identical to Albanian pittabof, explained thus by Split (1): grosso, E grassa corpo E faccia. It quotes in support of the female ending - off the adjective nkof which it translates into Latin: hebes.

3. Perhaps - If the first direction of the Greek xa.fi&os is that of a young being (one has only to compare Latin juvenca), it would have to be attached to Albanian parthina who means recently, then for slap the first, then with the Tetpflf Greek, - irtifct, etc

4. - Albanian has a strange word to say lie: ptp or pw. II points out Hebrew rimmah immediately to mislead.

(1) Grammatica untied lingua albanese, p. 50.


APPENDIX

Of the caste of Teucriens and similar castes in high antiquity.

The name of Teucriens was also given to the priests who served the Jupiter temple with Olbé, in Cilicie, founded according to the legend by Ajax, wire of Teucros (1). It is not there the only example of a name belonging at the same time to people and a sacerdotal caste.

Hérodote teaches us (2) that the Low ones are the prophets of the oracle of Dionysos which was in the country of Satriens. Grimm compares them to the priests who according to Jornandès were called the piles (3). But the powerful tribe established later around oracle bore also the name of Besses (4). Let us quote the name of the 'EMo “or 2 more “AAio/de Dodone, which applies as well to the priests of Jupiter Pélasgique as to the whole population of the region; from there the name of Hellènes, which was to take a so great extension. Perhaps there

(II Strabon, 573,44.

(2) Hérod., VII, 111.

(3) Grimm., Geschichte DER deutschen Sprache, p. 198.

(4) Hérod., ZUffffcs; Strab., Beffffo/; Hahn brings this word closer to Albanian $Sff<re-tt. faith, fidelity (Greek

it takes place to quote famous Courètes here which according to Strabon absolutely does not differ from Corybantes and the Dactyls of the Ida, and which would have consequently belonged at the origin with the worship of Rhéa Phrygienne. They would have represented, by armed dances, the legend of the goddess and Jupiter birth. As they passed to be been used the first of bronze weapons in TEubée, they were identified, with Chal- cidiens (cpr. X “.WC<” JW). They had guerroyé a long time, said one, to put itself in possession of the plain of Lelanton, and they would have shaved the hair on the former part of the tète not to give any catch to the enemy in a fight body-with-body (1). They would have emigrated then in Etolie and they would have been fixed in the surroundings of Floret.

Thus Telchines are, according to Strabon (2), the proper inhabitants of the island of Rhodes who would have received the name of Tex^/w from it. They were regarded as a species of wizard and magicians; but actually they appear to have worked the first bronze and iron, and to have manufactured the famous Saturn scythe. However they would be originating in Crete, says one; from there they would have been transported to Cyprus and finally to Rhodos. Others still tell that there would have been only some Telchines in Rhodos, and that those of them which would have followed Rhéa to Crete, to raise and nourish the Jupiter young person, would have received the name of Courètes. One cannot ignore in these

(1) It was also the use of Abantes, former population of Eubée which mixed early with the Ionian ones.

(2) Strabon, p. 558,1 “.

legends traces of the contact of the former inhabitants of Greece with the Semites poured in metallurgical arts. Like Ttvapos leads us to a TÉi^Û root ", and lexylvsf with a root 9 “^a>, it is to be supposed that one allotted to Teucriens some practical and certain secret talents, to which they preserved their ascending on the populations which surrounded them.

Of all these details it appears to result, that at one unmemorable time, certain sacerdotal castes would have exerted in Greece, as one for a long time knew it those of Egypt and Asia, a considerable action about primitive races, and than they would have ended up their imposing the name even of the caste.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:00 am

THIRD BOOK

THE MIXTURE OF THE RACES

IN THE PELOPONNESE

AFRICAN INFLUENCES

If our research were entirely vain they will have shown only before on arrival of the Greeks, the country to which they were to give their name, was already occupied by a race covering at the same time, either only, or mingled with other tribes, Epire, Macedonia, Illy- laughs the all theMinor one and Aegean Islands until Halys. To north, it was going to merge, while being lost there, with Slavic populations, Celtic and even Germanic. In the west it appears to have colonized, partly at least, Sicily, the south of Italy and to have essaimé to the Alps, perhaps even beyond. It had its own idiom, which is not attached directly to any known family of languages of Europe. If it one can about it judge according to the forms phonic and grammatical that this idiom presents today, it appears to be spoken initially by mountain dwellers; but it would be impossible to say which mountains they would have lived in the beginning, the Caucasus, Taurus or Balkan. They undoubtedly had religious concepts, since the traces were preserved some in traditions arrived to us via Strabon and especially of Pausanias. However, they do not appear to have known the city itself, nor made up of these national centres compact, by which affirm themselves the historical people. The use of the letters did not remain to them foreign (according to all appearances at least), but they did not leave durable memories, similar in that to other tribes which did not rise with more an high degree of civilization such as Ligurians, Sicules, Ibères, etc; yes, similar to the Indians of America nowadays, they well quickly underwent the ascending one of the vigorous races come from the north and the organized nations of the East.

§ 1. - Plants, minerals, imported animals of Africa.

The former inhabitants of prehistoric Greece they had relationship with the people of Africa, Egyptiens and Libj^ens? One could not doubt it. However these races are deeply distinct by the language and manners from Pélasges and Lélèges, and nothing would be more erroneous than to see in their establishment in the countries which constitute the Turkish empire today a push carried out by the populations of midday towards the north of the old continent. On the other hand, the influence exerted by these last on the tribes half-savages then of Greece and Italy was put in all its day by the Movers scientist. This distinguished orientalist pointed out that the bee-keeping passed to be invented or by Saturn or Aristée (Aptouchos of the Libyans) in trimmings of Cyrène. The wax of naïque Cyré- and Carthage, African honey, were and are still very-important articles of trade in the north of Africa. Also will be necessary it to perhaps seek in the old libyque idiom, the Berber one or the tamazigh of nosjours, the origin of the words by which they were indicated. Knpo? the wax will cera says your-kir to it; honey your-lies; your is the libyque article. It is in Africa also that one from time immemorial cultivated with predilection the leguminous plants, such as pea and broad beans. Thus the cicer and the slow ones of Latin are found in ikikir it and the talent of the Berber ones. L, 'abaun of the Africans is Greek Tvo.vos, Ttovo.vos of Lacédémoniens (to compare German Bonne; Latin F-Ba moves away more). The cabbages were said along the septentrional coast of Africa carumb; in the language of Aram çrob, carba, in Greek '<ça.^>i, Latin crambe. Movers at a rate of risking only with precaution the comparison of Latin hortus and Berber the urt. Hortus is a word of Indo-European origin. The bringing together of the words aurum and urgh, of nakarat and argentum, triticum and irdur, farina and awaren also appears subject to deposit to us. We like better that of dpvÇa rice and Berber the aruz. But we would not dare to affirm that C/t/w or h' npav (Hebrew 1JTJ), then cwcwmts, to tube, zingiber, was of African origin. Movers recalls that the mules and the small horses whose in antiquity the Greeks and the inhabitants were useful themselves of Latium, came from Libya; they were called x.â.v? snvef AijSwcei, canterii. It brings closer asmws to Berber the aghiul, which has the same direction. According to Hésychius the ass was called /3p " co* with Cyrène. This word naturally makes think of Latin buricus, buricum (Spanish borrico), though Diez makes come this last word from will borra, French bourru or of russet-red, reddish burrus.

Movers points out, in another place (1), that the montueuses parts of septentrional Libya are the true habitat of the goats and the wild ewes, and that it would be from there that these animals would have spread themselves on the other coasts of the Mediterranean. The name of the ram into Berber is ikerri, that of the goat ikil-wash (2), as an Egyptian the wild goat says kerch. I am undoubtedly not struck, as Movers seems the being, of the identity of these words with those of tityrus, yiffvpu., aàx \ ifo<. But according to notes of scoliastes (3) T<Yt//i “would have been the libyque name of the goat. By fftripa, eiovpvo. Libyans, and according to

(1) Movers, Phœnicier, III, p. 366-368.

(2) Compare Berber ish horn, and Isammon-aries according to Serv., AD JEneid., IV, 196.

(3) Prob. AD Virg. Bucol., 1,1.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:00 am

they them Greek, indicated a species of clothing made with skins of goat and sheep. Tinpus could be an alternative of a-^ufat well (the first syllable representing the libyque article). The radical syr or tyr is brought back by Movers to Semitic “the vy \ there the hairy animal, the goat. Would the legend of the Satyrs thus have come to the Greeks from the Libyans via the Semites (of Phéniciens perhaps?) Movers believes that the Azazel goat, known of the Jews, was adored in low Egypt. The satyr, who answers Marsyas of the fable, would have been called 2nd (hts according to Duris Tl), identical word with seir, Ti-syr or Ti-tyr. According to Hésiode, quoted by Strabon (2), the fatherland of the Satyrs would be the Peloponnese, according to Pindare the headland of Hammers out. The relations of Libya and the coasts of the Peloponnese go back to the Almighty antiquity; it is thanks to them that the Jupiter Ammon worship, i.e. ram, spread itself in Greece. Movers quotes finally Varron Of rerusticaïl, \: Secundum antiquam consue- tudinem will capras and oves Hercules ex Africa in Grœciam exportavit. But so after having noted that Latin dési- pay by pulli gallinacées of any age (gallinœ Cu juslibet œtatis), it brings closer Berber the afullus cock and t-efellus-t the hen; we believe duty to make reserves. He recalls on the other hand with more relevance than the island of Favignana, on the Western coast of Sicily, was called Kiywatsa., island of the Goats, by the Greeks and the Libyans. It is this Karp/a which Movers COM

'!) Athenaeum, XIV, 9, p. 618.

(2) Hérod, IV, 180; Apollod., III, 12,3; Pomp., Mixed, I, 7.

avoid Latin copra then, as it compares hœdus with” T, I (guedi) and a'£ with T|". However this Karpia, makes think of Kurpeûf wire deMinos and of Crete, and of Kârp name of a city in this famous island.

§ 2. - African Divinities adored in Greece.

It appears manifest that the goat played in the life of the former Libyans a part similar to that of the cow at the old Hindu ones; non-seulement the worship of these barbarian people, but still that of the Greeks felt some. The Africans who lived close to the lake Triton celebrated the birth of a goddess called Athéné by the Greeks. The young girls of Machlyens and of With the séens devoted themselves in its honor and so to speak under its presidency to gymnastic exercises. The mytho- Greek graphs are laid out enough to admit that Athéné was really born in Libya. To tell the truth, it is a divinity phenician, a transformation of the nomad Astarté (1). It is goddess of the war, and it is in order to represent it with dignity, that the young Libyan women, the day of her festival come, cover one as of theirs of a helmet and a complete armour. Thus Tanit de Carthage and of Sidon had as an attribute the helmet and the lance. Hannibal in its treaty with the rci of Macedonia, while engaging with respect to him for these Libyan populations, calls upon their guardian divinity,

(it Movers, III, p. 464 and suiv,

absolutely as if it were the same one as the goddess of Carthage. The people of antiquity, when, brought closer by the events, they formed their alliance, exchanged readily their national divinities. If Triton and the libyque Mars became Carthaginian gods, if Atlas became a god phenician, the hordes of small Syrte adopted the worship of Tanit, regarded by them as Bellone commune with the two races.

However, it appears that the former Greeks identified this African goddess with their Gorgo or Jellyfish (1), and that the legend which is attached to it did not remain without influence on the idea that one was done in Hellade de Pallas Athéné. The aegis and the blowtorch come to him definitely from Libya; it is of Libya which comes to him the skin garment from goat, with which it is represented. This clothing was still of use among Eastern Libyans of time of Hérodote. Apollonius of Rhodos allots it to the three goddesses of Syrte, the Three Graces of Cinyps which are not other than the three Gorgones. It is true that the Libyans domiciled on the territory of Carthage, the Moors and Numides, had ended up adopting the tunic of the Carthaginians. But Gétules, faithful to manners of the ancestors, Maques savages, the Libyans of Sardinia and the Balearic Islands were still time of the Romans vêtus of goatskins, and when this antique costume was finally obsolete, it was still preserved at Guanches, where the Portuguese met by discovering the Canary islands. The antique “the aegis” (afyis) libyque is still used as coat of war in the interior of Africa; and still today the Africans living the edges of the lake Tshad carry the aegis as Athéné the door in the plastic representations which us remained about it, i.e., that it placed on the chest the head of Gorgo. Major Denham reports in his voyage from Africa (1), that the chiefs of cavalry had for any clothing the skin of a goat or a leopard. It was thrown on the left shoulder, so that the head of the animal was in front of the chest. In the medium, the ends of the skin were bent together; it thus descended juice that to the thighs; one had detached neither the tail from it nor the legs. We find here milked for feature the costume of the Pallas goddess, with the difference announced already by Hérodote (2), that the goatskin was fringed, not snakes, but of leather thin straps.

1} Apollod. lll, 12.3; Pausan., I, 21,5,6.

Athéné also passes to have invented, close to the lake Triton, the rustic flute (or the blowtorch), then to have rejected it like a too common musical instrument, deforming its face each time she wanted to make use of it. With this legend is attached some another, that of Marsyas, which finds this blowtorch scorned by Pallas and which, enorgueilli by its talent, causes Apollon, which, after having overcome it, skins it very sharp to punish it. However, it is close to the lake Triton that Marsyas is supposed to have found the flute, and when the myth speaks to us about skin of satyr, it is obviously in the shape of a goat that he thinks of representing it.

(1) Reisen in Afrika, p. 188.

(2) Hérod. IV, 189.

If it is necessary to add faith to Hérodote, the Greeks would have borrowed from the Libyans of the lake Triton non-seulement the worship of Athéné, but still that of Neptune. Only, according to him, these Libyans adored Neptune. This last appears in a treaty of alliance concluded by them with the Carthaginians beside the god Triton (1). However, this Neptune venerated at the same time by the colonists of Tyr, cannot be a god of African shepherds. It must be Baal of the Semites of Phénicie, the guard of their fleets and their sailors. The mythographes tell that he would have raped Gorgo-Jellyfish, i.e. libyque Pallas, in a temple of Athéné, sure index that the worship of these libyco-Semitic gods supported the prostitution. This note besides is not insulated. Athéné passed sometimes for the girl of Neptune. She had been diverted of her father, who had wanted to corrupt it, and she had taken refuge at Jupiter which had made his/her adopted girl of it. This account contains a test to reconcile the libyque tradition, according to which Athéné is girl of the god of the sea, with the Greek tradition which makes the Jupiter Olympien girl of it. According to is another legend, this god of the sea of the Libyans called Pallas itself (probably a corruption of Baal?) ; it generates Athéné with Tritonis; when it was large it killed her own father when he wanted to violate it; it skinned it then and of its skin was made the aegis. In a word Baal or Kronos, at the same time as it was Neptune of Phéniciens, was regarded as father of the goddess of the war at Phéniciens and at

.1) Polyb., VII, 9,7.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:02 am

Libyans. This Neptune appears to have had the shape of a goat; also one finds on the currencies of the cities liby- Co-phéniciennes which are located close to Syrtes, a goat provided with a fish body, symbol of a god of a population of sailors and shepherds.

Though one can think of the opinion of Hérodote and the legends which we have just mentioned, it appears certain that Neptune passed already in old Greece for the national god of Libya. Libya is often indicated as being the wife of Neptune, and if Antée (i.e. the indigenous Libyan in opposition to the foreign immigrants), is called wire of Poséidon and Ge (ground), by Ge it is still necessary to hear Libya. Finally let us recall with Movers that the aïeux ones of the people phenician, Phoenix, Agénor, Bel, pass for wire of Poséidon and Libya and that Hésiode (d) calls girls of Poséidon the three Gorgones of Syrte. Finally it is at least probable that the worship devoted to Neptune ^avios (infernal) on the headland of Ténare had been rested by the libycophenicians (2).

§ 3. - Continuation of the same subject.

Since the oldest times, the Peloponnese had been opened with the worships the remote nationalities most various. The festival of Hyacinthies celebrated in Amyclées

(1) Théog., v. 270.

(2) Strabon, XVII, p. 710,24 and 311,45.

was introduced among natives by the Semites of Syria. Apollo while launching the disc had killed inadvertently the beautiful Hyacinthe. The tomb of this last was shown in the temple of the god with Amyclées. The Hyacinthe was for the Greeks the symbol of a flowering, a blooming rapids and transitory follow-ups of a prompt decline. The disc of Apollo indicated the striking down effects of the sun of summer which desiccates the flowers and the greenery which spring had given birth to. The first feastday was one day of mourning, one deplored the death of Hyacinthe; the following day and two days later were dedicated to the joy, the dances and the plays. Hyacinthe had ressuscity and it was assembled to the sky. These solemnities symbolized the regular return of the seasons and the years; they reproduced those by which Phéniciens celebrated the death and the resurrection of their Melkarth god. It is of Cythère also that in Laconie the worship of the Diane bloodthirsty man, Diane orthosienne, close to the temple had penetrated of which young people were whipped to blood. In this Diane it is necessary to recognize cruel Astarté, to which the Semites offered human sacrifices. With these sacrifices the Greeks substituted the scourging of the young boys of use in the Spartans.

A memory of ancient India is preserved to us on the other hand in the sacrifice of the horse immolé by the applicants of Helene at the time of the oath lent by them to Tyndare. The place where the horse was buried still called time of Pausanias iWow /wS/x * (1). Near

(1) Pausan., III, 20,9.

tomb saw seven columns, symbol of seven planets. The sacrifice of the horse was of use among former Indo-European people such as Scythes, Mas- sagètes, Indous. To the German ones and Persians (one remembers the election Darius), as to the Greeks (one remembers Xanthus, the mail of Achilles), the horse passed to have the gift of the divination.

Hérodote, one is not unaware of it, would like to make come from Egypt almost all the gods of Greece. Osiris admittedly recalls in a striking way Bacchus of Hellènes. But Bacchus is, as one knows, young person of their gods, and the foreign features that one notices in his legend and his worship explain just as easily by the relations more frequent than maintained the Greeks with the people north such as Macedonians, Thraces, Phrygiens, etc, and by the worships orgias- ticks of use among these people, than by knowledge more refined than they even started to have of Egypt, since, under Psammétique, the Ionian ones had founded in this last country of the durable establishments.

§ 4. - Colonies.

On the other hand one supported on several occasions and with a certain persistence which the results did not justify yet that Greece had been colonized by desémi- grants come from Egypt. Fréret tried to identify Inachus and Enak, Pharaon and Phoronée. lo, girl of Ina- chus, borrows several of its features from the Isis goddess. The resemblance of these names does not leave be specious, but it is not enough to carry a serious conviction in the spirits. The tradition which makes come Cé- crops and Danaùs of Egypt are not more assured. It was claimed that Cécrops had introduced into the Attic agriculture, arboriculture (culture of the olive-tree especially), the institution of the marriage! Philochoros went until affirming that under Cécrops Athens counted 20,000 hearts. Today, there are very-founded reasons to dispute the identity of Pallas Athéné and of the Neïth goddess of Know in which Bœckh still believed. It is Plato who, in his Timée, according to a tradition of the Egyptian priests, had affirmed that Athens had had close relationships with the ground of Egypt and in particular with Know. But elsewhere (in its Menexène), he does not admit that Hellènes were born from the mixture with a barbarian race; he thinks that they are “wto) “exa “p “, W p.i%o$cip@a.poi. It appears that it is Anaximène de Lampsaque which, in a book published by him under the name of Théopompe, wanted to see the first an Egyptian in Cécrops.

Greek mythology makes of Libya the mother of Bélos, and gives to this last for wire, Danaos and Egyptos. These legendary data prove only the old ones and intimate relations which seem to have linked in highest Mizraïm antiquity, Will be and Javan. It is by no means incredible but at the time where Hyksos had seized the valley of the Nile, the Egyptians guided by Phéniciens tried to colonize some points of the Peloponnese. In Pausanias, there is more than one to remember, more than one name which makes think of the Egypt antique. In a passage of its book (1) it quotes king de Trézène, Gros, whose son would have been called Althepos. Here are undoubtedly of the names which, of the opinion of Bœckh, have less one Greek air that Egyptian. Everyone knows celebrates it myth of fifty wire of Egyptos and the fifty girls of Danaos. Everyone heard of the punishment inflicted with these last with the hells. It is believed today generally that under Danaïdes it is necessary to hear the sources of this arid ground of Argos (xoMfQio, AF>0*)) sources which dried up summer at the height. The fifty hottest days of the year, the days of the heat wave (2), represented in other legends in the shape of mad dogs, are in that of Argos of the impetuous applicants, come from midday, of Egypt, country to the tropical climate. They continue the girls of Danaos; they reduce the sources and they are on the pointd' to triumph over it, i.e. to desiccate them. But it is at the time when the sons of midday believe being sure of the victory, which the nymphs of the sources make them move back: those spout out of ground with a new strength. For better including/understanding this account symbolic system, it should be remembered that at the Greeks, the nymphs which personify the sources were regarded as the guardian spirits of the bridal layer, which one called upon them so that they granted fruitfulness to the new unions, that one employed the water of the most limpid sources in the matrimonial rites. Hérodote tells (3) that Danaïdes

(1) Pausanias, II, 32,6.

(2) Duncker, III, p. 121 and suiv.

(3) Hérod., II, 171.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:02 am

learned how to the women from Argos to celebrate Thesmo- phories of Déméter, celebrates whose ceremonial had milked especially with the marital union. One thus sees by all that precedes that the legend of Danaos and Egyptos does not provide any historical data. We spoke elsewhere about the direction attached by the old ones in the name of Danaos. Anva. ”! meaning, according to Etymologicum Magnum, deaths, i.e. desiccated; one will not be astonished to see the same adjective employed to designate the inhabitants of Argolide, because of the extreme aridity of their country. One showed the tomb of Danaos close to the market of Argos and that of Pélasgos, close to the temple of Déméter.

Little is essential us, after all, that the Egyptians based or not a colony on the coasts of the Hellenic peninsula. What we would like to prove it is that the ground of Greece had not been occupied in the olden days only by populations come from the boreal areas, that the East and midday provided their quota of colonists to the dye sheepskin. Our task will be easy, if one wants to grant to us who the proper names that we meet dads the mythology of the ancients are other thing that a vain sound. _ but, it be this dye which have give their name with these Ethiopian, of which the Greek recognize two species, that which live the Far East orient and that which remain with west, i.e. in the Libya (perhaps also in the Nubie) (1). They penetrated in Greece and mixed with

(1) Od., I, 22, have (àv fvffopévov' You x' epiot' bone oîf' àviôvTos, Hésiod., 9,6. 'Eœo/iuù èfTisioi.

other inhabitants of this country? We will answer that according to the mythographes, Danaos had a wife of the name à' Ethiopis and a girl Céléno (Ke \ a.ivâ of “* “/? “black. ) This last name was also carried by a girl of Atlas. This Céléno had of Neptune a son, called Célénus in his turn. Another Célénus, wire of certain Phlyos (1), plays also a part in the antiques worships lélèges of the Peloponnese. Persée, king d' Argos, probably a personification of the god of the sun, had a son, Electryon, which generated with Anaxo, girl of his/her brother, Alcée, a son of the name of Ki^ctiveéf. Céléné, (KeA<*/vii) was also the name of one of the girls of this Prœtus to which the Cyclops lycians had built the formidable citadel of Tirynthe.

It is not all. In Brauron in the Attic one adored a Diane who one could be come from abroad. Apollo, said one, had been to seek it in Ethiopia, and Anacréon called it child of Ethiopia (MSiovitis Your. 'ïS' a). Elsewhere it appears to be indicated simply by the name of Ethiopian, and like such, it had furnace bridges at the same time in the Lydie and Eubée. These places bore the name of Ai&ÔT/ct where Afà/ÔT/ct. However, we saw that the Greeks in their mythological geography, as often understood by Ethiopia Assyrie as Libya. Indeed, Hésiode places the Ethiopian ones in the Bridge (2) beside the Scythians which drink the milk of their mares and which for the majority had adopted the worship of Tanit-Arté-

(1) Pausan., IV, 1.

(2) Hésiod., fragm. 64.

put. Tanit was an Assyrian Goddess, and the Assyrians were powerful in this part of Asia until the VIP century. Let us add that Melanëis was the old name of the town of Erétrée in Eubée, that Melénée (MiKturnti), filsdel' Arcadien Lycaon passed to have founded the borough Mwia/w' eci, that there was finally in Corinthe black Venus (1). These names, though meeting sometimes elsewhere and in particular in Eubée and the Attic, are not however nowhere as frequent as in Pélo- ponèse. We could still quote Mélanthos, wire deNélée, roid' Elideet an area of Sithonie called Mélandia (MeAacJVa). Perhaps to explain this last name, it should be recalled that Homère had placed Protée guard-seal àPharos (2), that Hérodote made of it a king of Egypt (3) and that this Protée, according to certain traditions (4), generates Cabire (Kafaipa.) which, married to Vulcan (god of metallurgical industry), birth gives to Cadmillus. Protée d' Homère would have moved from Egypt towards the Chalcidique peninsula in Macedonia, and would have been established in the peninsula of Pallène according to the ones, in Sithonie and in Toroné according to the others. In all these areas, as in its mothrace and even in Troade, reigns indeed in high antiquity the worship of Cabires, divinities phenicians, naturalized in certain parts of Greece, and in particular in Thèbes. Let us recall finally that the islands

it) Athenaeum, XIII, p. 588.

(2) Cpr. Pharis in Laconie and Pharce in Achaïe and Messénie.

(3) Hérod., II, 112.

'it Movers, III, p. 193.

of Samothrace in the past, Lemnos and Lesbos would have been called Ethiopia (1).

§ 5. - White Race and brown race.

Let us arrive at the most important facts. Laconie carried, before being occupied by the Greek immigrants, the name of Lélégie. This name came to him from Lélex, wire of Neptune and Libya. Does one think that if the Greeks had recognized of the of the same men race in Lélèges, they would have allotted to them such an origin? Since Libya was regarded as the Eve mother of the Aboriginals, it is obvious that they were to preserve something of the aspect of the populations more strongly marked by the hedge of the sun. Lastly, the Tantalum father is called Aiàœc (burning or flaring, of the sun?) ; the name of its Pelops grandson, that it is considered, with Thucydide and the old ones, as Asian who emigrated in Greece, or with Duncker, like a true Greek, could mean another thing only the man with the dye sheepskin. - One noticed with accuracy that Pélopo- nèse time of Homère did not bear this name yet, that Morée was then called 'A^/a y' N (ground surrounded by water), that the name of Peloponnese was generally adopted by the Greeks only at the seventh century (2). The latter managed très-tard to be formed concepts

(1) The Mother, by Giraud-Teulon wire, p 58.

(2) Duncker, III, p. 145,146.

right of the countries which they lived for a long time, their site and their configuration. Denominations of Asia and of Europe, when one wanted to speak about the two continents which bore these names, are themselves of a relatively recent origin. I however do not share the opinion of Mr. Duncker, supporting that they are the colonists of Mysie, the inhabitants of Cymé who gave course in the name of Peloponnese. They are the conquerors, the men of North, Doriens, the white and fair men who had to be struck the first of the type, if different from their, of the population which they had to fight and which they ended up subjecting; they recognized them a long time with their invariably black hair, with their features browned by the sun of the South. Among the Achaens, first flood of immigrants for a long time mixed with natural with the country, it was a rare thing already at the time of the Trojan War that a man with blond hair. It is by there that king Ménélas pointed out himself (C “^bf Mêw' Actoj). Maintaining it was the mark of the very whole higher race; maintaining the name of Hellènes, which had still designated only some populations of the areas of the north of Greece, was carried with assignment by Doriens. For a long time one explains the name of Sc/ixoi or 'em.c/, given to the Jupiter priests de Dodone, by the luminous ones, the brilliances (I). All the region around Dodone had been indicated in large Eées by the name of Hellopie, i.e. the luminous country, so to speak the country with the clear glance;

(1) Of eh” sunlight. Cpr. fsheu,

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:03 am

Aristote calls it simply Hellas fc' are had in Eubée another Hellopie, close to the headland Cénium (Kni/aw); this name was even extended, according to Strabon, in the whole island. Eubée was thus C good hour a ground disputed between the men of north and the men of midday. Hellops is presented to us, indeed, like a son of Ion. A city, Hellopion, located in Etolie, are named by Etienne de Byzance. We showed higher how the name of Alas passed from Epire in Thessalie, then in Phocide, and how, following the invasion dorienne, it ends up embracing all the Greek tribes. Hellènes were the men with the clear glance, with the flourishing dye. Also, when Lycurgue tested the need to give a durable sanction to the famous laws of which he was the author, he placed them under the protection of new, unknown divinities with the former inhabitants of Lacédémone, under that of Jupiter Hellanios and Athéné Hellania. These names mark a new order in the businesses and the government of Greece. Later, when all the cantons recognized the authority of the oracle of Delphes and sent to the envi their delegates with the Olympic Games, this name designated all the Greeks more and more indistinctly. Winners and overcome regarded themselves from now on as the members of same large and glorious confederation.

§ 6. - Winners and overcome. - Ilotes.

The situation of the former inhabitants of the Peloponnese and the remainder of Greece was not the same one everywhere after the conquest. The bravest men, most valid, those which were characterized by their birth undoubtedly emigrated for the majority; but majority, probably, - the ground of his/her fathers did not leave. There were cantons which the invasion scorned, like Arcadie; others, where the new inhabitants and the old ones mixed at once (Elides it); others, which preserved their intact field by recognizing the supremacy of some more powerful tribe (Pisates and Caucones in their relationship with Eléates; - those of Cynosurie and Thyrée in their relations with Argos). The former inhabitants of Trézène accepted in their centre of the colonists doriens of Argos and could thus remain faithful to the Ionian traditions. Something of similar must have taken place with Sicyon and Phlionte, though Doriens appear to have exerted in these two cities a dominating influence.

Before the conquest, there was not, in all the country ranging between Olympe and the headland of Hammers out, no class of serfs nor slaves of Greek race. The slaves that one met there were or of the prisoners of war or the bought barbarians at money price. There were however days laborer, free men however (Sn-ref.), who, against wages, were useful like shepherds and ploughmen. All that changed following the invasion of the men of north. In some cantons, the primitive owners of the ground were reduced to serfdom; it is what arrived in particular in Thessalie; the former inhabitants trained a caste with share, the caste of the unskilled labourers (ttÂ<na.i of xtvo/jt.a.i'); x.tna>va. Koq><>poi de Sicyon, the x.ovfaoS' be of Epidaure, the x.wl>q>a.hoi of Corinth indicated perhaps only lower and poor classes, scorned by the reigning race. Everywhere remains, during a more or less long time, the antithesis of the former inhabitants and newcomers, winners and overcome; but, everywhere also one seems to have known only two deeply distinct classes (1). In Laconie only, and the part of Crete colonized by Lacédémoniens (Lyktos, Gnossos, etc), one distinguished three from them. The Spartiates warriors appear to have been plain between them by a fraternity narrower than the other doriens groups. Having to fight against of the many armies and populations, Lacédémoniens did not mix with the former inhabitants; they formed camps armed, always ready to fight and run to the rescue from/to each other. The town of Sparte did not have of another origin (2). Quite incredible would be the assertion, if somebody dared to propose it, that the few thousands of Doriens which penetrated in the narrow valley of Eurotas, had been able, by a simple act of legislation, to divide the population subjected into

(1) We do not speak about the tribes in which each canton is divided; we know extremely well that their number was more considerable.

(2) Duncker, III, 382,383.

two distinct classes, one preserving some rights: the perièques ones; the other, pertaining body and goods in the State: ilotes. This last word could not come from the name of the town of Hélos, that the Spartans occupied later and of which they reduced the inhabitants to slavery, - inhabitants who could have been called 'E^eTo/or 'e.mo.to .i, but never E “V “R “. This word comes obviously from the verb O.kwx.w, I am prisoner of war. It should be admitted, indeed, that the Spartans, by attacking the antique kingdom of Amyclées, were in the presence of a population already hierarchically organized. The Masters of the ground were precisely these famous Achaens, whose name had filled of its glory the century which preceded the invasion by Doriens. Had the Achaens easily subjected the old population lélège mingled with colonists phenicians, Libyans, who knows? Egyptians perhaps. These inoffensive tribes underwent without resistance the ascending one of a more energetic quarrelsome race, as were to make Killikyriens in Syracuse later, Marian- dynes in Héraclée, the Bridge; Bithyniens with Byzance; Africans of any species with Cyrène. One can believe that they disputed the ground only slightly with the invaders; on the other hand, the day of the danger come for the latter, they were to be also of a quite weak help for the Achaens their Masters. Doriens found them in the spoils of war and seized some. They removed them, like reason, with the overcome Achaens of which they made the second class of the population, that of perièques (accolœ). As for natural of the country, they transformed them into state-owned property, which ensured a precarious existence but a relative safety to them. It is true that the Spartans reduced later many time to the state of ilotes of the populations which appeared to endanger their preponderance, as they made majority of Messéniens. We do not persist in about it less believing that, if the inhabitants of the canton of Lacédémone present themselves to us laid out on three stages, that is due to the three sections of populations which had superimposed the ones with the others in the course of the centuries, namely: 1° Lélèges, mingled with Mediterranean colonists with the dye sheepskin and even dark; 2°Achéens; 3° Doriens. What seems to corroborate this sight, it is that the Spartans are touj bears considered as being plain with perièques by the liens' of the same nationality. All and sundry were included/understood in the name of Lacones (i.e. those which speak, to imply: the same language and which is included/understood) (I). There existed, as we mentioned above, a similar situation in the island of Crete, where Doriens had to fight Achaens and of Phéniciens reigning as Masters on a ground inhabited originally by tribes of Pélasges and Lélèges. This population, indicated by the Greeks under the name of Eteocrètes, was driven back soon until the end Is island, until Preesos, the tops of the assembly line which crosses the country of an end to the other. Those which remained on the ground which formerly had belonged to them, had to accept a situation similar to that of the ilotes of Laconie.

(1) Cpr. Teipression ZeOf AeW£cf “iiiuû>i', Jupiter which prophesies.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:03 am

FOURTH BOOK

MR. U J MR.

§ 1. - The age of flint, the polished stone and bronze in Greece.

The time is not any more where it was affirmed that the Greeks, while emerging in the country which was to bear their name, had found a desert; where it was believed that they had not undergone any foreign irifluence, and that they had been done all alone. One finds on the ground of Greece, as on that of all the other countries of Europe, the tools, the weapons, of primitive constructions, which do not contain the trace of any metal. Mr. Dumont announces arrows and fragments of knives carrying on each one of their edge S two foliages made with the greatest care. One collected in Switzerland of the similar knives, which defer us at the time where all the Central and southernmost Europe, subjected cold which reigns today in Siberia, was still inhabited by the mammoths, by the bosprimigenius and Yursus spelœus. Mr. Dumont (1) described

(1) Dumont, archaeological Review, 1867, p. i42 and suiv.

also a series of axes of porphyry and serpentine dating from the time of the polished or Neolithic stone found in the éparchie of Chalcis; and of the coarse ustensils of household found in the island of Amorgos. It is at this second time which go up according to him the inhabitants of “so remarkable” constructions of Therasia made with rough stones joined together by a kind of mud interfered grass, and undoubtedly also remainders of dwellings of Santorin covered by volcanic eruptions which one can fix about the date (1). Mr. Of the mount believes capacity to affirm, after having examined huts built on pile in the middle of the lake Bébéis and still inhabited, that the inhabitants of Greece of these prehistoric times knew the lake dwellings. But these last, according to him, were never but the exception, while constructions cyclo péennes, if many, especially in Epire, are widespread on all the surface of the country. Eubée, in particular, in the part which extends from Stoura to the point of Carysto, appears particularly rich about it; they of a difficult access, are placed at the edge of the chasms in the middle of the rocks; it is in this region that the weapons of serpentine and porphyry met in greater abundance than elsewhere.

On another side, Mr. Thénon (2) found in Crete of the ruins of antiques fortresses of a construction cy- clopéenne, not far from the cities which occupied the empla-

(1) Speech of Mr. Waddington to the meeting of the learned societies, 1876.

(2) Review archéol. 1867, p. 104-115 and p. 409 and suiv.

cements of Khadros and Khondokynégi (1), and which are themselves already of a more recent date. He compares the ruins of Téménia with a vast camp built out of cyclopean bond, surrounded by frightening walls, and he adds: “in the interior of these walls, there are as many fortified towns of districts, than of houses. ” Lastly, the famous ruins, in which Doctor Schliemann believed to recognize the remainders of Troy, would not detect us yet the stay of older people than Troïens, the existence of a civilization or less advanced or coarser, the traces, in a word, of some nexu.ayix.w or some teteytïevï

A axe-hammer, of copper very-yellow, round at the top and slightly frayed at the other end, approaching much by the shape the stone weapons known as Celts, having been found in 1867 in the north of Chal- cis by Mr. Miller, Mr. Dumont in infère (2) that in Greece, as in Western Europe, the Bronze Age followed that of the polished stone. He points out the passage of Hésiode, where it is known as that iron was employed for the use of the life only after copper. He is there question of the third generation of the men: has They had copper weapons, houses of copper (?), and they worked the ground with this copper, because black iron did not exist (3).

ToîV tPfli' yji.Kx.tu. /mv Têû^Sît, yjiKKSoi Fe

(1) Albanian Kitfpe means extremely, vigorous. The first syllable of khondokynégie appears to come from nàvr-If, edge, or navfit I shelter.

(2) Dumont, Re-examined archéol. 1867, p. 146 (vol. XVI).

(3) Hésiode, Works and Days, v. 150 and suiv.

One believes, with reason, that the foreign source of the primitive Greek metallurgy is, on the ground even of Greece, industry of Curetés, the Dactyls, Cad- méens, without speaking about Telchines and Corybantes. In fact Semitic corporations, but later appear to be recruited among Pélasges. Indeed, the words will ptra. Khw (metal to forge), nciffire^os (kasdirri), TV [tira.vov (tuppim), 'x.pwt' bone (charouz), and £/<î>o< (égypt. saz/î), being explained better by Hebraic roots (1). Let us add that the etymology of the name of Curetés appears to be provided by Hebrew kour furnace of forging mill. Mr. de Rougemont points out that Curetés with Chalcis had become truths. Greeks. Chalcis was certainly during several centuries the principal factory of weapons of Greece (X *** Mto); because, according to Alcée, any sword is chalcidienne. However the Greeks had to make use, at one very-old time, of iron tools, in particular of a sickle or bill hook with sharp teeth, such as one finds it in the deposits of the palafittes (2). Ottfried Mùller (3) as, points out, according to a fragment of Phoronis, as the Dactyls would have been the first in Greece to work iron; of Rougemont associates Sintiens to them de Lemnos “which exchanged their objects out of iron and in copper-bronzes against the wine of the Greeks. ”

II thus appears extremely probable that the metallurgy will have been taught with the Greeks by Pélasges and Pélasges by Phéniciens. It will only appear stranger about it than the Albanians, who in common have so many words with the Greeks, indicate iron by a term which is clean for them: - xénoupi, that Mr. Camarda would like to identify with the Greek xaÀ*°< (!) For that it has recourse to the ending dorienne - ap substitute! '- “ordinary. It is obliged to admit the ecthlipse \ which rather seldom takes place in front of X., as in ovutov wolf, for OÙ' ajcov, which remains beside the softened form. It is true that Mr. Camarda written Vvkov. Then it quotes like another example of the removal of the liquid the verb ^enj, whose direction is to draw, withdraw, tear off, to endure, and it establishes equation X “J = Emc”. However, yju appears to have also the direction: to weigh (Hahn, dict., p. 149). The ending - ivfe is used moreover to form past participles and substantives expressing the action of the verb. It is essential thus little that xe' X8UP comes from - /.axxé? or not. This word makes to the Albanians the effect of a participle whose direction would be: the action to weigh or the weighed thing; the action to trail, tear off, or the trailed thing, torn off. It is known that because of its heaviness iron is the metal whose the weights were done. It is also known that, when fused metal starts to cool, it is cut and it easily is trailed; xêKOUP would thus mean properly the cut part, detached of the cast iron (2) do not forget that siftipos is derived by the linguists from the root located” to sweat, that in German schwitzen transpi-

(1) Fred. of Rougemont, the Bronze Age, p. 213.

(2) De Rougemont, ibid. p. 214.

(3) O. Mùller, Archcplogie der Kunst, 1835, p. 38.

(1) Demetrio Camarda. Saggio di grammatologia comparata untied lingua albanese, I, If. 90.

(2) II in Albanian a word “Xeihx exists besides. meaning plebs, crowd.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:04 am

the RER, and schweissen to liquify, are touched closely (schweis- SEN being only the factitive form of schwitzen, that in Sanskrit svid-ita wants to say “molten” and svêdanî an iron plate (1).

§ 2. - Degree of culture of Pélasges before the immigration of the Greeks.

The Greeks, while arriving in the country which later was to bear their name, was Pasteur people. Their migration alone since the sources of Indus would be taken with the need of it. But the names which they gave to some cantons and certain parts of their new fatherland are, according to us, a proof moreover than, for a long time still, they continued to go behind their herds; - we want to speak about Eubée Eu/So/a, and Béotie Bs/ot/sj; Arcadiens finally remained until the fifth century faithful to the life of the ancestors, and they kept the conviction that their canton had been always consequently occupied population. The extreme simplicity of their existence did not prevent the Greeks from being already a race quite gifted and predestined with brilliant future. They spoke an admirably organized language; they had naive beliefs but healthy, they adored the gods of the firmament, the light, the clouds, the winds (Jupiter, Uranus, Aeolus, Mercure, i.e. 'EftuSV, Seléné, Eos (Dawn), Dioscoures, it is

(1) Benfey, Griech- Wurgçllexicon, I, 466.

with-to say Asvînî or the knights of the Hindu ones. They had, thanks to their soothsayers or aèdes, younger brothers of those of Gange and Indus, a religious poetry which gave undoubtedly beautiful hopes. They was well there the germs and déj at the beginnings of this so powerful intellectual life which, during thirty centuries, was to provide to the needs for all the civilized people. One can however suppose, that the material organization of the life was advanced at the tribes than they were going to meet on the ground than it was necessary to dispute to them, and Pausanias (1) exaggerates obviously when it affirms that Pélasges of Ar cadie had had to learn how to build huts, to be covered skins of animals, and to eat edible nipples. We know unquestionable science which they had learned how to protect their cities by strong walls, to build turns and citadels, and that these constructions still excited the astonishment of Hellènes when they were in ruins (2). We know just as they were devoted to agriculture, than they chose to be established preferably there the grounds of alluvium, located along the rivers (see higher). We do not claim to say that the Greeks completely were unaware of tilling, when they left Asia; words such as àplat a.ç/nçovt ctfovça. would prove the opposite. We believe only that they were not yet completely gained with the sedentary life, and that after all Pélasges were better farmers that them. When a troop of Pélasges, driven out by

(1) Pausanias, VIII, chap. I.

(2) Duncker, III, p. 122,211.

Doriens of its country, sought asylum near the Athenians, those assigned to them for place of refuge the most exposed part of the Acropolis and a stony field located at the foot of Hymette. Pélasges then raised there one of these bastions by which they had been made so famous, the famous ntha.ffyix.au (1), and they transformed into arable land and fertile the bad ground that one had yielded to them. What would seem to show that Pélasges arrived at agriculture independently of the Greeks and before them, they is that the terms of this art as those of the pasture are not the same ones in the languages of the two races. Thus, in Albanian, the plough says parménte, the ploughshare vhjwa.pi, to plow @é: J ovyâ.ç or Tffâij, etc; milk xjavftegTe, butter E, SjàZe cheese, Séxeçe corn, xôvje, wheat or jtavn; to feed nov^is, meadow *jju£à&, Tff “/p, etc Malheureusement the Albanian language managed to us in a state such, that the relationship between its current vocabulary and its vocabulary of three thousand years ago could be also numerous only one would like it.

It appears undeniable moreover, that at the time when the Greeks came to be established in Greece, Pélasges were already in possession of the writing. We are those which think that the writing is not the invention of a privileged race, of single people; that it could be found on several points of the sphere, without there being relationship or communications between the inventors. Pélasges could be been useful well

(1) Still today TovÇÇso, in Albanian wants to say stone heap.

.

of a writing more imperfect than that whose later Phéniciens were the most active propagators. If one can add faith to the legend, according to which Bellé- rophon was sent in Lycie provided with a letter “of Urias” containing of the “disastrous signs (wfAcna. M>f “) (1) >” it is necessary to grant at the same time, that at one time former to that where go up the Hellenic traditions, of the cruel races living the neighbouring Greece and countries had found average to communicate between them remotely, and differently than by the spoken word. Old the grammairiens understood already by these signs of the images (eiJW.a) comparable with the hiéroglyphes of the Egyptians or with the runes of the Scythians (2). We saw higher than Lyciens were of lelegic race; these are thus not Greek words that the notebook of the hero of Corinth will have contained. , Indeed, put later in relation to Phéniciens, Pélasges adopted the writing of it by adapting it to their own idiom. Diodore says formally (3), that the letters (x.w”) were generally called phenicians (<faimte.), because Phéniciens had brought them to the inhabitants of Greece, but that in Greece (i' JW) one had given them soon the name of “pelasgic,” because Pélasges would have served the first of them. He even adds that Orphée and Pronapides, “the Master of Homère,” would have already employed them. Diodore appears to have distinguished between a hieroglyphic writing (

(1) Hom., Iliad., VI, 150-211.

(2) Preller, II, p. 57.

(3) Diodore, III, C. 66.

about which he does not speak and the alphabetical writing found by Phéniciens and indicated properly by the name of ypâ.n/j.a.Tct. It is there the only direction which we can attach to the words: KatT/aou Mpisayrof îx. $owix.ns To. “na.^ov/^st/tt I ypâ. /ji. [À.cna. (1).

Phéniciens besides were full aware not to be not themselves the authors of the alphabet spread by them on the most remote coasts of the Mediterranean; they allotted the discovery of it to the Taaut god, who was not a Semitic god, but Egyptian (2). They could not about it less assert glory to have singularly improved it by simplifying it. They still left make the Greeks and even the modern people; but progress principal, decisive, had been achieved by them.

One is not unaware of that the oldest Greek inscriptions, those of Théra, date from the ninth century before our era, and of first half of the eighth; they are traced in boustrophède, and even they are written from right to left, exactly like those of Chananéens, when they count only one line. They seem to have preserved the forms of the Semitic alphabet, thanks to the presence of Phéniciens, which had been maintained in Théra (and even in Mélos), much later that in the remainder of the archipelago (3). However, it had been already centuries that Phéniciens occupied these islands

(1) Hahn, p 295, seem to be of the same opinion.

(2) This point was clarified recently by Mr. Halévy in front of the Academy of the Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres.

(3) Lenormant, Origins and formation of the Greek alphabet in the archaeological Review, vol. XVI, p. 276 and suiv.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:04 am

when they transfer to unload the first Doriens colonists. It had been centuries that Cadmée had been founded. There is thus any probability that the writing phenician was known of Pélasges as of the twelfth and the thirteenth century; and, if Cadmus finished its days in Illyrie, as the legend teaches it to us, i.e. if Phéniciens led colonies in Epire, which appears undeniable (1), one does not see too much why the Albanians, which are très-certainement the descendants of old Epirotes, could not have preserved the tradition of the pelasgic antique alphabet.

There exists, indeed, an alphabet suitable for the Albanian language reproduces by Hahn in its great work (2). It does not count less than 52 letters. If, like Hahn does it, one deducts of them the 15 letters double (i.e. those whose sound can be returned by two letters of this alphabet and whose form represents the combination of these two letters), there remain about it still 37, sizeable figure and who approaches that of the letters of the alphabet Armenian (38) and the various Slavic alphabets (Russian 35, glagolit. 43, cyrill. 48, Serb 39, Wallachian 41). Several letters of this Albanian alphabet resemble less their signs corresponding in the Greek than to the primitive signs of the writing cadméenne, phenician or pelasgic writing.

It would not be absolutely impossible that these ancient signs had been transmitted accurately of wire father

(1) II on the edges of the sea, in Chaonie, a city of the name of Phénicé had there.

(2) Hahn, p. 286 and suiv.

since ninety generations in the families most distinguished from the country. But to these ancient signs came to be added as well signs modern and truly useless, as it will be certainly difficult to distinguish today between what is authentic and what is apocryphal book. When it is noted that the 6 is represented by a sign which resembles singularly reversed, that these is D reversed which is used to appear N, a H turned over which takes the value of chja, X. turned over that of ja, it should well be been appropriate that we are far from the Semitic hiéroglyphes (aleph ox; bayit, house; guimel camel, etc) reproduced by the letters of the alphabet Greek, and which we deal with an artificial creation.

Moreover, of the consent of Hahn itself, this alphabet is of use only in the town of Elbassan; there, it is employed, non-seulement in writings of a religious and liturgical nature, but still by some traders in their correspondences with compatriots absent and even in the behaviour of their books. This alphabet, of which would make use hardly around fifty of people, would have had as a director one named Theodore, professor at the Greek School and preacher of the city, extremely erudite man of the remainder and who had translated into Albanian the old one and the new Will. It had been occupied, appears it, to constitute a literary language common to the dialects Albanian so many and so different from/to each other. Unfortunately, when a plague forces had devastated the country, all its writings were burned by parents who feared the contagion. He lived about the middle of the last century and he appears to be dead towards his end; it does not remain today any more, according to the insurance of Hahn, only two short manuscripts written with the characters of the alphabet of Theodore. Still these manuscripts would be only about 70 years old of date. They contain one of the fragments of Greek horologium, the other the sixteenth chapter of the holy Gospel Jean. They are written in the dialect guégeois. Hahn, in its Albanian, reproduced the facsimile of the page drawn from the Gospel and the fact of following texts guégeois and tosques Studies printed in Greek characters.

What removes much of its authority to the alphabet of Theodore so lengthily discussed by Mr. Hahn, it is the circumstance which the use of alphabets with figures is very widespread in Albania, use quite natural after all in an alive country since centuries under the yoke from abroad, and whose inhabitants were to seek all the means to get along between them opposite the common enemy. Mr. Hahn makes known to us one of these alphabets, which was entrusted to him by one of the most notable chiefs of Argyrokastron (in southernmost Albania); they was 22 signs or figures, which one was useful oneself in the family of the latter in certain occasions. The form of some of these signs is rather arbitrary; others, on the contrary, point out the letters of older alphabets.

It appears that in the Albanian colonies of the old kingdom of Naples, it preserved a national alphabet of 30 letters known of Mr. Guiseppe Crispi, director formerly of all these communes scattered on the Italian ground. The observations presented on this subject by this scientist throw a rather sharp light on the question which occupies us. It calls the alphabet italo-Albanian an ecclesiastical alphabet; its letters, says it, resemble enough the characters phenicians, Hebrew, Armenian etpalmyréens; some would point out the hieratic writing of the Egyptians; more a small number Bulgarian and mesogetic letters. - Unfortunately they do not seem to have any relationship with the pelasgic, runic and Etruscan letters. The signs of this alphabet do not have the hastée form yet; what dominates in this writing, as in that of the Greek manuscripts, it is the straight line. As Mr. Crispi thinks as, in its current form, she must be the work of Christian priests is of the second century, when Christianity was introduced into the country, that is to say ninth, when the Albanian Christian mass was joined together in a final way to the Roman mass. Lastly, Mr. Crispi finishes by this important line: Questo alfabeto pero contains alcuni element! di alfabeti infinitivamente più antichi usati jn Illiria in Macedonia E in Epiro (1).


§ 3. - Worships of Pélasges and Lêlèges.

The origins of agriculture, of a regular life sedentary good ordered are attached in the name of Pélasges; the worships, which symbolize an existence better than

(1) Hahn, loço çitato.

that of the savages, the gods who are the object of these worships, seem to belong pareillement to this ancient race. Hellènes appear to have adored the gods of the light especially; in Homère Hades, Perséphone are alarming powers; the hells are a sad stay where Achille goes down to regret, which it would readily exchange against the life full with labours of the poorest peasant. The heroes of the time seem to be unaware of that the infernal divinities present to those which look them closely a double face, that of died and mourning which accompanies it, and that of the joy and the immortal hope. Undoubtedly, the transitory beings which live our ground return early or late in its centre, but this one gives birth to them without delay with the light in new forms. The succession of the seasons, the generations, of the men, proclaim the great natural law: fruitfulness, order, eternity. It is there what the neophyte learned in the famous mysteries from Eleusis, in those of Andanie founded by legendary Lycus, in those of Samothrace, in those that Pélargé is supposed to have restored in Thèbes after the catch of this city by the Epigones. The gods, who at Pélasges appear to have appeared in the forefront in these religious holidays were Déméter, Koré (Perséphonel, Bacchus and Hermes (Mercury); they was the gods of the farmers, humble and the poor, extremely neglected for a long time by the warlike nobility and guerroyante of the Greeks, who sought only the immortality of glory.

To tell the truth, these gods had little analogy with those which venerated Aryâs of Gange; it was

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:05 am

bitch of the gods, Sarama, to which the Greeks gave the nobler shape of their Hermes, they changed it at the same time the role and the character. They adapted it to the religious traditions, with the worships which they met in Samothrace, a long time occupied by colonists phenicians. The enthusiastic celebration of the festivals of the Bacchus god indicates the influence exerted early on Hellènes by the noisy worships of Thraces, the Lydians and the Phrygian ones. In the account of died of the god and his glorious resurrection, one cannot ignore a certain resemblance to the legend of Osiris of the Egyptians. Lastly, Aryâs of Indus were far from allotting to their Çpenta Armaiti, the holy ground, the underground action and mystic who lent later to Déméter Greeks a so powerful prestige.

Plaintive songs. - Linos.

The fact is that these divinities and some others still belonged to the primitive beliefs, of which the most naive naturalism and simplest constituted the bottom and all the elements. These beliefs are undoubtedly older than the installation of the Greeks on the ground of Greece. They burst in this old festival of Hyacin- thies, celebrated in Amyclées in the honor of the Hyacinthe young person that Apollon had killed out of his disc inadvertently. The disc of Apollo indicates the disastrous effects of the sun of summer burning the greenery and the flowers that spring


had made hatch. The ceremonial of this religious holiday seems to have represented the circular walk of the year and the action sometimes fertilizing, sometimes sterilizing sun, concepts which were unknown initially to the Greeks and who must have penetrated in the valley of Eurotas of the island of Cythère, where Phéniciens had an old station. The same subject returns in the plaintive songs that one made resound in many cantons of Greece and various regions from theMinor one, at the height of the summer, at the time of the harvest or after the harvest, when the ground stripped its green ornament. Thus in Tégée one psalmodiait Skephros, in Phrygie Lytierses, while corn was mown. At Mariandynes, on the edges of the Black Sea, with the sound of the flute the lugubrious accents of Bormos resounded. This song drew its name from that of a beautiful young man, who wanting to bring water to the harvesters during the heat of the day, is attracted by nymphs and disappears in the river. The same legend is repeated at Bithyniens, calling with great Hylas cries, absorbed, him also, by the waves. This cry was made hear on the mountains, reflected ad infinitum by the echoes of surrounding. In Maneros, the Egyptians of Peluse, especially, cried a young boy, single child of a king removed in the first flower. Hérodote, which found in Greece the beliefs and the traditions of Egypt, identifies the complaint of Maneros to that of the Linos sung according to Homère, often after the grape harvest, and also indicated by the names of Aïx/w or

Pos (alas, O Linos, or died of Linos). According to one

? O

caption of Argos, Linos would have been a child of origin divine, raises by shepherds in the middle of herds of ewe and devoured by mad dogs. One is not unaware of that the mad dog was among Greeks, as of the oldest times, the symbol of canicular heat and Sirius. However, of recent research showed that the complaint of Linos is the same one as that which the inhabitants of Byblos (Gebal) made hear, in autumn, when beautiful Adonis had been killed on Lebanon by a furious wild boar. One cried it during seven days. The women cut the hair, struck the chest, and sitted along the roads, they shouted: Aïlanou, misfortune with us. It is this cry, pushed by Semites, who gave his name to the complaint of Linos. (Have A/W.) There were tombs of Linos with Thèbes, Chalcis, Ar gos, and an antique religious poet of the Athenians, WFP phos, grandfather of Pamphides, passed to have entonné the first, in Greece, the lugubrious song of died of Linos (1).

Déméter.

However, all misleads us, or this complaint of Linos, which we find among people of Semitic and japhetic race, belongs neither to the ones, nor with the others; it appears to belong to the more naive worship of the first inhabitants of Asia-Minor and Greece, who transmitted it to their conquerors and successors. If Pamphos

(1) Ottfried Mûller, Grîech. Litteraturgeschichte, I, 41.

passes for the first which, to Greece, made hear the complaint of Linos, one pareillement allots a song to him on the abduction of Kora or Proserpine. The worship of the latter, as well as his/her Déméter mother, goes up as much higher as the immigration of Yàvanas; and it is with reason that Hérodote brings back it to the beliefs naturalists antiques Pélasges (1). These goddesses chair at the latter agriculture; but the fruitfulness of the women and the renewal of the generations pareillement were pareillement entrusted to their supervision. They summarized in them the underground forces of nature, and they enjoyed because of that, as of the olden days, of a certain mystical prestige. One venerated them in the cantons of Greece, where the oldest traditions had been preserved: in Arcadie (in Pheneos, Thelpousa, Phigalia); in Messénie, especially in the primitive centers of Arena and Andanie, sits of antiques mysteries (TeheTai) abolished by the Spartans, but restored by Epa- minondas; in Laconie (in Amyclées and Hélos], in Argolide (I” ^ht “/> x&ow' has in Hermione); in Mégare, city which drew its name from this worship; in Eleusis finally, in Thèbes, TANAGRA and Oropos (Ûh/*hthp 'A^aiâ), and in Opus in Locride. Déméter was adored like agrarian divinity in the island of Crete, as the legend proves it which tells its love for its favourite Jasion (2), and in the islands of Paros, Thasos, Lemnos, Imbros and Samothrace. In the three last, where Pélasges and Phéniciens had met early, its worship had been

(1) Preller, I, 464-466.

(2) Cpr. the words 'lâac, \ à.a [j.a.i, 'lâ

compound with that of Cabires. What proves the character eminently pelasgic of this worship, it is the legend of Lykos, wire of king Pandion of Athens, which would have emigrated in the country of Tramèles, to which it would have given the name of Lyciens, after having spread in My sénie a new glare on the mysteries of Andanie. A discovered inscription with Konstantinoi, in 1858, confirms the indications provided by Pausanias (1), on these mysteries. Thanks to it, we know that the whole population met there to form like a religious corporation, a arpetrot ispos, whose chief was called monitor of the troop, ^ay/WpaTûf. Ony vénéraitla Mother and the Girl, Déméter and Koré, indissolubly plain under the name of the large goddesses; then in second line, Kriophore Mercury, Kabires and especially Apollo Karnéen (2). According to the interpretation of some modern scientists, Mercure would represent in this worship the generating principle of the man, Koré the immortal hopes which come us from the ground, and Apollo those which come us from the light, of the sun rising every morning on the world still plunged in darkness. The first injunction imposed to the women initiated with the mysteries of Déméter was chastity (3), i.e., fidelity in the marriage. The initiated and married women were called preferably/“/> “/; Koré itself bore the name of a.yv' I \. The most irreproachable purity could

(1) Pausanias, IV, 3-6; IV, 33 and suiv., etc

(2) Bachofen, Low lykische Volk. p. 60,

(3) Bachofen, p. 84, note 5.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:07 am

to only do of the mother what it was to be with the tète of the family, the image of Déméter and Kora (1).

One noticed on this subject the bond which linked the royal races of Lyciens and Caucones. It, is ordered by chiefs drawing their origin from these races, that the Ionian ones had left the Academy, after the invasion of Doriens had been pushed back. One inféré of it the identity of the mystical worships of Messénie, Lycie and Athens; one also asserted for these worships a character orphic. This last belongs certainly to Caucon, the ancestor of Nestor de Pylos (2). Caucon, wire of Kelainos, i.e. of the black man, communicated to Messéniens the mysteries large goddesses of Eleusis; Lykos gave them more glare (Tfonystyev be TiKiw Ti^s); and one still showed time of Paused denied crowned wood, where it had purified the neophytes (\ vkov S-pvpos) (3).

Apollo.

The name of Lykos is as inseparable from the worship of Apollo, as according to the legend it would have introduced in Athens (4); but actually, Lykos appears identical to Apollon; Lykia is the ground where he likes to remain. A long time before the arrival of the Greeks, he was the national god, non-seulement of Lyciens, but of Troïens and

(1) Bachofen, p. 85.

(2) Pausanias, V, 5,4; IV, 26,6; IV, 1,4.

(3) Pausanias, V, 14: Bachofen, p 76

(4) Bachofen, p. 58; Preller, I, p. 160.


widespread primitive tribes on the coasts of Anatolia, the Aegean Islands and Crete. It is of Lycie and Crete that the worship of this god appears to be imported in Délos and Delphes. Indeed, the first which had triumphed by its songs with the thic plays py-, passed for Cretois; in Délos, one believed that Olèn, Lycien, had sung the first hymme in the honor of Apollo (1); this god is also the god who as of the olden days governs oracles; he returned from there in Thymbra, Klaros and Milet. The temple of Apollo, to Milet, bore the name of temple of the Didyméen god; it was served by the family of Branchides, and it was older than the first Ionian colony on the ground of Anatolia (2).

This one is also, do not forget it, the first fatherland of Sybilles. We are brought back in Lycie by the famous oracle of Patara, whose mystical character appears by the trunk (3) where are the crowned things, by the booklet of the initiates and the crown (4). The god who predicts is the god who makes the light; he is itself the sunlight raising which leaves the floods of the Ocean. For this reason the tops of the mountains and the headlands are devoted to him; fires of the Dawn redden them the first. From there will the name of Ly- kosura? from there especially the name of Apollo “Penny/our (5),

(1) Preller, I, p. 173.

(2) Strabon, IX, 421; Pausanias, CONSIDERING, 2,4; 5,2.

(3j the word cista, x.itn” is the translation of will patara, which points out Latin will pay.

(4) Bi/éAioc Thj T£AêT “V and aTê' cpafof. Bachofen, p. 69.

(5) Bachofen, p. 72 and passim.

of Albanian ev-OV, OV-pi glance. Of there too the report/ratio which links in Lycie Apollon with the element neptu- nien. In Tarsos, it is represented outgoing sea, even provided with the three-pronged fork (1); he is venerated like river god under the name of Xanthos. Generally the sources, in these trimmings, were the object of an enthusiastic worship, in Arycanda, Myra, Cyanée, Patara and especially with ~ s.na.fo I. One allotted the power to cure to them and predict the future (2).

Are Apollo, god of the light, wire of the night and darkness, i.e. of Leto (\ a.tàcu>c<> or the phenician stable-lad to give birth to)? This one stops in Délos (of Albanian djel sun) where it is confined of Apollo and Artémis (the moon and sun considered as the children of the night). According to others, Leto appears in Lycie, drinks water of Xanthos, there bathes his/her children and devotes the river to Apollon (3). Bachofen already pointed out with smoothness, that the PEGASE dispach rider like Apollon, joins together in him the double element of the light and water: the sourcePeïrene spouts out under its feet; itself turns over to the sky, Apollon is the god of the rising sun (eous), but it preserves relationship with the Night, his mother. It is because of these reports/ratios that it returned in Patara and Such messos of oracles by night dreams; and that it has as a symbol the mouse, the animal of darkness and the tomb (4). One sees, indeed, in Nimes a sepulchral lamp

(1) Bachofen, p. 72 and passim. (2j Bachofen, - p. 16, note 2.

(3) Antonin Lib. XXXV, at Preller, I, 162.

(4) Apollo is called Sminthien with Chrysé and Thymbra in theMinor one, of ff/xiVSo* rat, mouse.

where a mouse is represented corroding a lit wick, symbol itself of the terrestrial life (1).

Is the name of the god himself of Greek origin? Its old form was 'ATtAXw (2), reproduced partly by the proper name 'Ats^jk and the name of the month 'k-veKKa.i “>v of the island of Tenos. Thessaliens disaient' atao-jc. Sometimes undoubtedly Apollo, like god of torrid heat, sent death, and even the plague. However the étymolo- gie which makes come its name of àvro^v/M appears as incredible as that which would like to explain it by ènro^ovxv the purifier. Bachofen which treats also this origin, and which on this subject appears to mix with the very heterogeneous things (3), quotes a rather rare Italian nickname of the god: Apertas, and it brings it closer with enough happiness, this seems to us at least, of a city of Lycie 'A-z-ê' p^a/or 'Atépptti. The consonance p* is still found in Mvphéa., city of Bithynie. There is not well far from “has “pÂct< with” \ Tré \ \ ctii>. However, in Albanian, <*t means to give, give up, for example 'o.t eviprsi/e to return the heart. 'At-sppe would be: to give up darkness, the night; because êppe wants to say Albanian darkness. Undoubtedly spps can be attached to the same root as spejïof, and perhaps Albanian “T has some relationship with the preposition sanscrite apa, Greek “tré. The Latin verbs aperire and operire would find thus an explanation sufficient, they would mean: to draw aside or bring darkness. Apollo would remain always the god of the light; and the name of *oî/2of

(1) Bachofen, p 73.

(2) Preller, I, 152, note.

(3) Bachofen, p. 42, note.

would be that the Greek translation of an old light breadth term (1).

Artémis.

The mother of Apollo and Artémis was Leto; its name lycian was Phaté; it is the ire of this goddess whom the inhabitants of Lycie called on the head of those which violated the sepulchres of the families. One knows which care Lyciens gave to their tombs; with which art they decorated them; they built them for eternity. Still today qà.ri wants to say destiny, fortune, in Albanian; qtiTta. is the name carried by the three fairies which appear with the bed of the new-born child three days after his birth, to fix and predict its fate.

Not more than Apollo, Artémis could not be regarded as a divinity of purely Greek origin. Its name recalls, undoubtedly, the adjective à.pré/j.tt< healthy, vigorous, robust. But one can suppose that this resemblance holds with the efforts made by the Greek mouth for gréciser a foreign name. In the island of Crete, in Egine, on the coasts of Lacédémone, Artémis was adored under the name of Dictynna and of Britomartis. This last word would have meant: soft virgin. Indeed, out of Li

(1) This etymology is perfectly of agreement with a religious belief of the Corinthians, which adored an Apollo Bellero- phon. This last, the top of the dispach rider of the clouds, draws aside, thanks to the crown of rays whose its tète is surrounded, the fogs which darken the sky, and it overcomes spirit of darkness, the B.M- leros (Vritra of Indous^. Duncker. Hist. of antiquity, I.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:07 am

thuanien martis wants to say been engaged, sister-in-law, and could be Sanskrit mridu well to tighten (German mild}. While making precede the substantive, we would be in the presence of a form Martimrit (1), whose old Hellènes could well have made “\ prepts (cpr. imitari for mimitari of the Greek /u/ ^éo^*Wink.

One knows that this goddess delivered herself to hunting preferably in the Forests of Lycie (2), then in those of Arcadie, where the names deLykos and of Lykaon so often return. She had a famous temple with Brauron, in the Attic, served by young virgins, who bore the name of a.px.To T ourses (it is in the form of a ourse that Artémis had been cherished by Jupiter). Brauron is not a Greek word. Thucydide names Bpai/pw woman of Pittakos, king of Edones (3). Edones are a thrace tribe; be necessary-T-it thus to attach ttpa.vpâ to the Germanic root brausen to mugir? It would be a singular name for a woman. I would like to best explain by dark Albanian fys.sTe; ^pàvoiy I obscured; fcfàvem the god who directs the clouds. Still today ftpaupâv is called Vraona. One knows that Guégeois replace almost regularly by N, IV often older of Tosques.

Artémis de Brauron appears to be the same one as Ar témis Chrysé de Lemnos. The latter was made famous for the wound from which it made suffer Philoctète. Sophocle (1) calls it wild ('. Vôct>o “I}, which seems to indicate human sacrifices. One pareillement offered these sacrifices in high antiquity to Artémis 'Op^i' has or 'OpSafl-i' has in the south of the Peloponnese and with Ta.volnr/>xo< at the Scythians. The Spartans replaced them by the scourging of young people close to the furnace bridge of the goddess. (V. higher.)

(1) The consonrmnce vcp at the beginning of the words becomes £ in Greek. Example: (3poTo$ - /j.p <nis.

12) Cpr. the name of the priestesses of Pallas Athéné: n<* \ has “<fff and that of the sacrificateurs who were used with the festival as Neptune with Ephesos: TcivÇoi.

(3; Dictionary of Pope, re-examined by Benseler, with the Kpavpâ article.

Amazones.

This Artémis does not appear to differ primarily from that which we meet in theMinor one under the names D " FçM7-. Afirôçpur” and nepyciia., and one starts to believe, today, that Semitic countries, that Assyrie, and later, Cappadoce and Phénicie were the true fatherland of the worship of the goddess of the Moon. Indeed, when the Greeks based on the territory of the Lydians the colonies of Smyrna, Cyme and Ephèse, they found there established the worship of a goddess, that they compared with their Artémis and who had with his service of the eunuques ones and of the armed virgins. Later, they learned that these virgins were met, further towards the East, on the coasts of the Bridge. Homère already speaks to us Amazones to the virile paces which will camp opposite king Priam, about the edges of Sangarios. Arktinos in fact of allied of Troïens; he tells how their queen PEN thésilée succumbed under the blows of Achilles. Poets

(1) Philoctète, v. 194. See Preller, I, p. 194 and suiv.

cyclic, and later Pindare and Eschyle, place them at Themiskyra, on Thermodon. It is there that, according to Phé- récyde, the god of the War had generated them with the Harmonia goddess. It is known that the Greeks indicated by the name of Harmonized the goddess of the Moon of Phéniciens, frightening Astarté. The vessels of the latter had had to carry its worship to the Eastern coasts of Greece, until in the Attic (1).

When later the Greeks rejected the Asian influences, Thésée passed to have killed Minotaure and to have driven out Amazones of Athens. But their memory remained alive in the poetic imagination of the Greeks; in Skotoussa and Cynoscéphales in Thessalie, in Chal- cis in Eubée, one showed tombs of Amazones; in Athens, one saw the statue of the Amazon close to the door itonienne, Amazoneum in the north-western part of the city, and the monument of Antiope on the road who led to Phaléron. Lastly, the day before the festival of Thésée, one offered to Amazones a sacrifice to it. It is as many testimonys of the action than early civilization and the worships of Asian exerted on the primitive populations of Greece (2).

It appears undeniable that Amazones had however, from time to time, of the relations with men; under this report/ratio, they had only to follow the example of the goddess whom they adored: at certain times cruel Astarté was transformed into the voluptuous one Have

(1) Duncker. Geschichte of Alterthums, I, p. 404 and suiv. (2j Duncker, III, p. 107.

will héra. We are not unaware of that Artémis d' Ephèse is represented with many udders by the visual art of old; it thus appeared also by its power feeder and fertilizing. Time of Strabon, it had in Cappadoce, in Cabeira, in the two cities bearing the name of Komana, of the famous temples, objects of a great veneration and ceaseless pilgrimages. For the famous geographer, it is always Artémis of the Greeks; but the natives called it My or Carried out. One found, in the places that we have just named, a fanaticized population, delivered to all the disorders of the directions, and thousands of tamper rodules which were prostituaient the abroads.

The inhabitants of Cappadoce belonged to the race of Sem; Astarté, Ashéra are Semitic divinities; the Semitic languages seem to return account better than all the others of the names of the localities, the rivers and the people whom we meet in the antique captions of Amazones. These famous heroins are other thing only the slaves armed with the Astarté goddess; their name comes from Hebrew amah maidservant and duchaldéen azen arms, unless one does not prefer to replace this last word (] TN) by the adjective az (îjî), female azah, i.e. robust-The cities à' Amisos and of Amasia answer two Hebrew words amiz extremely (Ï' DK) and amazjah that which Jehovah strengthens, of the amaz root to be vigorous. It estquele X Hebrew is generally returned by an S in the languages Greek and Latin; precisely the name of king Amaziah is written '^effffieu by the Seventy and Amasias

in the Vulgate, while that of king Usia (n*T>') made 'OÇia.<, and that of the town of Asah or Gasah makes TàX, *. riïV the name of the Thermodon river on the edges of which one places Amazones explains extremely well using Hebrew. Indeed, in this language, troumah wants to say “'^ *^ ** gift, present, and adon means lord, Master. There was. '' „. “> another Thermodon, us gift, in Béotie, running close to TANAGRA. But Béotie had been invaded early by Semitic colonies. We of are as much less been willing to see in Thermodon a warm water current (1), that ending” JW still meets in \ a.Muâfav, name of one of the former kings of the island of Eubée. This king seems to personify the efforts of Phéniciens to found in this island of the copper mines.

In the word adon we recognize without sorrow the Adonis of the Greeks. Would this god have been venerated formerly on the edges of the Euxine Sea, as it was it in Byblos in Phénicie? It is known that the small river which is thrown in the sea, close to this city, pareillement called Adonis. From July of each year, the water of this river took a red color; this one came from the red ground which it involved the top of the mountains. Then it was believed that beautiful Adonis, that Philon calls elsewhere Eljôn (the Almighty), had been killed on Lebanon by wild boar of the god Mars. Plutarque, in its Life of Démosthène, claims that

(1; Gift in the language of Ossètes means water. One can compare Tandis, Eri-daN-custom, etc, etc

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:08 am

close to Chéronée there is no more river of the name of Thermodon; that which bore this name formerly called A'/ftaïc of its time. However, Aï/uwc wants to say sanguinolent. We saw higher than the lament of Linos, i.e. Adonis, sang himself formerly on all the Western coast of Greece, than in much of places one showed his tomb.

Adonis was supposed to have disappeared from the ground to reappear in spring of the following year. He was called during this Thammuz time, i.e. the missing god, the separate god (suppl. of its admirers). It was also the name of July, time of its supposed death. However, if we believed to recognize the name of Adonis in that of the word Thermodon (of which the direction, according to us, would be: present of Adonis), it appears natural to us to find that of Thammuz in &e/j.iaK.vpa, (1). The second part of the word is obviously Hebrew kir, kirjah city. If Thermodon were the present of Adonis, The- will miskyra could be the town of Thammuz well. Nobody will be astonished by the facility with which the Greeks changed the first syllables into a word of their own language (àêjn/f). These assimilations are frequent besides in all the idioms. If our conjectures are found good, it will always remain to explain by which continuation of events the effeminate and sentimental worship Adonis made place with that of a goddess VI

(1) See the Assessment of the 20 chechmate 1876, where it is known as that Tham- puz is a word 'accadien which affects also the Duzi forms, Damuzi or Tamzi This Duzi would have become Tauz at Sabiens de Harran, and it would point out Thoas of the Panyasis poet, presented by this last as being the father of Adonis.

rile and sometimes bloodthirsty man, and why we find on the Black Sea, not whining women as in Byblos, but many Amazones (4).

Apollonius of Rhodos (2) believes it that these last were divided into three tribes, of which one, of the time of the forwarding of Argonautes, would have been controlled by the Hippolyte queen; whose second would have been established close to Lykastos; and whose third had been Chadé- his “which hold up the lance. ” The latter present an obviously Semitic name to us, chadash meaning new in Hebrew. But so by chance the y^ replaced here a p Hebrew, lesChadésiens would be the saints, the piles. The Jews called kedeshah, a girl devoted to the service of the Astarté goddess or Ashérah, a hiérodule obliged to sacrifice its innocence in the honor of the goddess to which it belonged (3). The town of Lykastos, finally, which was located opposite Amisos, reveals a pelasgic origin. We met his homonym in the island of Crete, and we know already that Pélasges and Sémites lived side by side and mixed in highest antiquity on all the points with Asia Mineure and whole Greece.

We spoke a little lengthily about Amazones, non-seulement because their appearance impressed the imagination of the Greeks highly and inspired by remarkable works to their artists, but also because, as we will see it low, they appear to have

(1) Duncker, I, p. 275.

(2) Argonautiq., II, v. 964 and suiv.

(3) V. the dictionary of Gesénius.

exerted a direct influence on the gic populations lélé-.

Athéné.

If deséléments Semitic is introduitsdans the worship of Artémis, that of Faded ace Athéné there esl not remained étran ger either. We saw higher than its aegis could be well of African origin. But Aristote seems to make of the owner of Athens like another Artémis (1), since it sees the goddess of the lunar light there. Indeed, one celebrated in Corinthe of the lampadophories in the honor of Athéné “ea^ot/j. Movers already pointed out, that as a phenician elloti means: my goddess (2). Athéné de Lindos, in Crete, was only one Astarté grecized; and if Athéné of the Attic is a goddess of the war as well as the guardian genius of the ploughmen, if it with the victory for partner, it undoubtedly owes this character with the sharp impression that the worship of Astarté and the courage of its priestesses, Amazones, had produced on the spirit of the first Greeks. But if the many idols found by D' Schliemann in some prehistoric Troy and coarsely representing a head of owl, were really symbols of the goddess, it would be necessary to recognize with its worship of the pelasgic origins. The Greeks combined and melted together these so different features, these traditions borrowed from

(1) Aristote, a. Arnob. adv. race., III, 31.

(2) Movers, Phœnicier, I, p. 155.

M

foreign races, and they composed the admirable type of it of constancy, courage, the industrial and inventive genius and the virginal purity, whose goddess of Athens is the alive expression.

They did not transform in the same way impure Mylitta the goddess of the prostitution, did not make the ideal of the female beauty of it, the goddess of the tempting graces, the charm and like magic of love. Finally while giving to their primitive Hercules, hero whatever not very wild and brutal, some of the features of Melkart of Phéniciens, Doriens didn't make any like the idealized image of their race, the model of the force which is moderated, the passion which is overcome, a heart which, by patience, the painful tender and thousand tests, is purified and makes himself worthy of the apotheosis?

Hermes.

We will not stop with these two divinities, because they appear to have been foreign to the first inhabitants of Greece. He is not the same of the Hermes god whose name points out too the name of the faithful bitch of the gods of India Sarama, like that of his/her Sarameyas son, so that one can ignore the intimate report/ratio which links the Greek god with the myths of the Aryâs antiques. It is necessary to see in him with Duncker a demon of the air, a servant of Zeus, a guard of the sky during the night, a god of the winds and clouds fertilizing (1). But it is not in India that it could represent the principle of procreation directly, and that the phallos was given to him like principal attribute. In the so pure songs of Rigveda, there is place for Lingam of male member), symbol of the god Ci go, whose worship developed in the Western parts of India only towards the Life century before no^e era (2). The Greeks while settling in the country which was to be their second and final fatherland, met there a god whom the natives adored as the author of the rains which fertilized the ground, and they confused it with their Hermes. Hérodote says expressly (3), that the Pelasges antiques were the first to represent Hermes in a ithyphallic attitude; that provided with its principal attribute, the phallos, it played a considerable part in the mysteries of Samothrace. It bore there the name of Kadmos or Kadmilos like god and father of the race; and in Thèbes also, he was venerated like the divine ancestor of Cadméens and as husband of Harmonized, who was only another shape of Aphrodite (4). It acts especially per hour of the twilight and darkness; the legend shows it to us slipping out of its cave wrapped of a sheet, to surprise and steal the-herds of Apollo; seizing image of the god of the rain pushing the clouds of the top of the mountains in front of him and extending them with an activity secret, ceaseless, on the valleys and them

(1) Duncker, III, p. 44.

(2) Benfey, Indian in Ersch and Gruber, p. 179; Duncker, II, p. 226.

(3) Hérod., II, 51.

(4) Preller, I, p. 241-243.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:08 am

meadows. This god whose worship is announced to us everywhere where pelasgic life is preserved longest intact, in Arcadie, in Lemnos, Thasos, Ainos in Thrace, had the name â' Imbramos in Im- bros. This name is by no means identical to the Greek 'tuspos, as one believed sometimes; - it comes rather from Albanian [J.$pf0e evening, which says in the dialect guégeois still today pfcpâ.pa., either because the activity of the god appears especially during darkness, or because, by means of the clouds, it darkens the glare of the day.

Is the word q>a.xhos itself of Greek origin? If one decides for the affirmative, it should be brought closer to q>a.hof a sheet metal which shines above the helmet; from q> “\ O “and <pcM6î white, <$a.Koa.fa bald person, etc the phallus would have received its name in opposition to the n-reif one, - the two symbols appeared in the pelasgic antiques worships in the mysteries where Déméter Hermes and Dionysos chaired. However let us not forget that in Albanian <$e \ ir<s-i is the rammer of the churn. Let us not forget either that the two symbols in question were in Asia Mineure inseparable from the worship of Aphrodite; that this one bears there in turn the names of My, Semiramis and Omphalé; that in the legend of the Lydians, the latter is presented like a slave or hiérodule of the Jardanos god, (name of a river of the Lydie). One knows the relations established by the myth between Omphalé and Hercules, called Sandan by the Lydians: it is Hermes which had led Hercules to the market of slaves; this last was bought by Omphalé of which it had uii fijs; Agelaos. But it is also known that both exchanged the attributes of their respective sexes, that Omphalé is shown with us often covered arm and of the skin with lion of the hero, while this last carries the long tunic of his/her partner and sat close to the stopper rod. The belief of the Semites did not transform only cruel Astarté into Ashéra voluptuous, it does not only make triumph the god beneficial over the sun (Melkart), of torrid heats which sterilize the ground; it still linked by a last and supreme design, in only one being, the forces and qualities of divinities belonging to different sexes. Thus in Paphos one adored bearded Aphrodite, called upon under the name of large goddess. In Carthage also Didon-Astarté was represented with the beard of Melkart. When king Mesa had removed Nebo with the Jews, it devoted this place to Astor- Kamos (name of the male divinity of Moabites). Some similar idea must be at the bottom of the myths of Sardanapal etdeSemiramis, of Hercules etd' Omphalé (1). In certain feastdays of the Baal god, the priests of the god androgyne showed in public vêtus diaphanous shirts of woman and rougeàtres, while the fem-

(1) Duncker, I, p. 274. - Duncker translates Omphalé dubitatively “that which gives birth to. ” Then Omphalé would be identical to Léda; because in Hebrew Ledak means childbirth. In Albanian to give birth to says Ijind; from there the name of the town of Lindos Pindare learns to us (Olymp., VII) that the island of Crete was born express and left the sea to make honor with the Hélios god, forgotten by the gods in the distribution of the countries of the sphere. The two other ancient cities of the Peak also carry of old names pelasgic: one is called 'ly. \ vaos of JxÀ/-or which, in Albanian, wants to say: fertile plain; and the other, Kcipsipa., which is explained easily by Albanian iéfj.epe, Latin camera,

my carried with men's clothes of the swords and lances. Here is, why Mr. Lenormand explains the name of um-faded Omphale (mother with sword). We would like to better translate large mother of faded, marvellous, enormous. Will it be necessary to also attach the Greek <px.^os or Albanian <fe \ irsi to the Semitic root pala? ^^

Bacchus.

It is difficult to believe that the god who governs the culture of the vine, was not already venerated in times pelasgic. The dème Icarie, where Bacchus appears to be in the past adored, would draw it its name from ikerri, word African which means: goat? The name of the god himself (Dionysos) is explained by that of a Nysa place (there were of them five thus called in only Thrace) (I \ where it would have been born. The nymphs of Nysa nourished it and raised. - This proper name appears to be attached to a snu root to run, to fall drop by drop (2). On the other hand the name Bacchus does not meet in the Greek authors before Hérodote; as beside Bacchus is the Jacchus form, one wanted to see in this denomination a simple onomatopoeia (i^a, ia. 'xéa, to shout, make noise). It is to be noticed that in Hebrew bak wants to say to pour; bakbouk bottle; gephen bokek a luxuriant vine, etc the oldest memories of the bacchic worship are in Thèbes, which

(1) Pope, p 284.

(2) Benfey, Wurzellexicon, II, 53.

seem to prove that it old Semitic influences should be recognized there. For Homère Dionysos is wire of Jupiter and Sole (1). However, Sémélé could not be regarded as another for me of “/xiw, as one thought sometimes. Not only the second syllable of the word appears of Semitic origin (as in Kv^-éhn montium dea of Sx god), but the first is obviously in the same case. Though Hebrew provides several etymologies of the proper name which occupies us, we prefer that of Shammah-el: devastations de= or terror of = (i.e. inspired by) god. - However Let us note still the names of riySv and Teâyovf by which Hesychius and Etym. Mr. designate sometimes Hercules, sometimes Bacchus; they appear certainly of pelasgic origin (2).

Gods cariens: Zeus Labrandeus, Osogo.

In the old city of Mylasa, deselementssemitic appear to be itself mixed early with the primitive national worships. Lassen believed to have recognized in the name of the chief Arselis de Mylasa who went to the help of king Kaudaules of Lydie (towards 700), the Hebraic translation of the national god of Cariens: Zeus Labrandeus. Indeed Tanks-el wants to say in Hebrew chops (of God) and labrys means also axe in the idioms of the Lydie and the Decay. Old currencies of IVe century my

(! ') Iliad., XIV, 325.

; 2) Probably of yjwetiy I drive out, I strike, I watch for. (Cpr. also yj&iy and there

the Trent indeed the image of a god carrying a double axe (1).

Cariens and Lélèges had to also adore a god of the sea. How could it be different? they not insular, navigators and somewhat pirates were not?

But nobody still tried to give an account of the direction of the name of Osogo of Cariens, that the Greeks indicate by word Z” i/oTo “/<JW. An inscription of Mylasa where this strange name is, inscription raised by Mr. Waddington, was recently the object of new research (2). This name recalls others of them beginning consequently vowel (Ogyges, Olen). This vowel seems to contain a word meaning water, in Albanian oîij, genitive ovjsffe. Thus one says jj-ipnev oijsye watery snake today. But in the past the genitive could undoubtedly precede the name which it determined. However, ago is an old Albanian word meaning god; Osogo would be for: oujesago i.e. aqua- rum Deus (3). - We do not speak about Thétis, whose myth appears to have a Greek origin? though we tried to explain his name by that of the sea, which in Albanian says fîri.

§ 4. - General Reflexions on the religion of Pélasges.

Want you to know people, study his religion and its gods. The naive naturalism which reigned at

(1) Duncker, I, p. 419.

(2) Archaeological review, November 1876, p. 234.

(3) From where inférer can that Olen is: in aqua natits.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:09 am

old Pélasges sufficiently informs us on the little extended sphere their ideas; they appear to be struck regular succession of the seasons, changes which it brought, then especially principle of the propagation of the species. The complicated and erudite theosophy of the Egyptian priests could not find no access on their premises; on the other hand they underwent ascending Semitic civilization; they partly adopted the worships that Lydiens brought to them, Assyrian and Phéniciens; they modified them by mixing them with theirs. Indeed, the religious designs of the Semites are higher than those of Pélasges, in what they contain a tendency towards the monotheism. Non-seulement the same divinity can appear at it by terrible and beneficial acts, by striking the countries of sterility or by spreading fruitfulness; but it can summarize in it the forms, qualities and the aptitudes of the two opposite sexes. (V. higher.)

The beliefs which the Greeks brought in the middle of the tribes half-savages of the peninsula of Balkan were undoubtedly purer, if they were not deeper. They in common had with the Aryâs antiques the worship of the gods of the air and the light, victorious of the demons, darkness and the dryness (Vritra and Ahi). The principle of the generation is rejected on the second plan in the théogonie of the Hindu ones. Let us add that the majority of the divinities to which one addresses oneself in Véda, are Indra gods, Varuna, Mitra, Agni, Asvînî, Maruta, Rudra, Savitar, etc In fact of goddesses, one meets there especially the Dawn (Ushas) and the Earth (Mahî the large one, etc). What strikes on the contrary in the religion of the Semites and also of Péiasges, it is the broad place which the goddesses of fruitfulness hold to with it, the goddesses Mères, maternity being the role assigned with the woman. It was noticed that in Babel the gods presented themselves by couples (Ball or Beautiful, Beltis). Thus the Greeks placed Héra beside Zeus, like representative the marital affection. They accomodated on their Olympe also Déméter and Aphrodite; even their Ar témis and their Athéné are only the idealized shapes of a Semitic goddess, sometimes hostile, sometimes favorable to the propagation. The Greeks thus made a great concession with the spirit of the religions, news for them, of the Semites and Péiasges; the number of the goddesses equalized from now on, if it did not exceed, on their premises, that of the gods; but the difference in sex is not the principal one, that which gives to all these types and these creations of Hellenic imagination their character, and notes it pleasure, not to be not unobtrusive, does not dominate more in the théogonie of Hellènes, which it does not make law in their manners, their arts and their history.

§ 5. - The woman at Péiasges and Lélèges.

The woman, and it is there that we want to come from there, appears to have played another part at the primitive tribes of Greece that at the descendants of Deucalion with which they were going to divide the ground. Just as Déméter and Athéné they were che/it object of a particularly enthusiastic worship, the woman enjoyed there not only one singular regard, but it appears to have sometimes occupied in the constitution of the tribe a row higher than that of the man. By seeing the mother especially there, one regarded it as the base of the family and the company, and one allotted rights and prerogatives to him which, in our companies, belong to the men alone. This prestige which appears to have surrounded the woman among primitive inhabitants of Greece, came it following one long period from heterism, as some wanted; did the promiscuity of the sexes reign initially on their premises as it really reigned at Massagètes, then at Nasamons, them With the séens, Garamantes and other people of Africa? It is a question which we do not propose to treat. We do not affirm either only all these antiques tribes: Lélèges, Caucones, Lyciens, etc, underwent with an equal degree the yoke of the gynécocratie. We will restrict ourselves to group a certain number of facts that the old authors transmitted to us on this subject.

It appears out of doubt that Pélasges and Lélèges had a marked predilection for the worship of the gods and especially of the goddesses of the generation and the reproduction.

Pausanias teaches us (1) “that Amazones came to be established close to the temple from Artémis, in Ephèse, to put itself under the protection of the goddess, but that the sanctuary was not built by them. Its founders

(1) Pausan., V, 2,4.

would have been Cresos, a native, etEphesos, wire of the Caystre river. It is this Ephesos which would have given its name to the city. Around remained Lélèges, old tribe, then much of Lydians; others were fixed very close, to request, like the women of the horde of Amazones. ” II is necessary to believe that this vicinity was appropriate for Lélèges, because they appear to have made it possible Amazones to fix itself on a crowd of points of Greece. These wandering priestesses constituted a gynécocratie arrived in its acutest state, which, because of that even, did not have any chance of duration. But in the areas of Greece, where Lélèges were maintained a long time, at Locriens, at those of Elides and Mantinée, the woman enjoyed an authority that we see him refused elsewhere. Polybe teaches us (1), that to Locriens Epizéphyriens, any nobility came from the women, and that these only were regarded as patricians who went down from the hundred houses, with female stock (“I O.tto TcÎv k*a.T<> \ > Oixikv). We already know by Hésiode that early Lélèges had entrusted to the direction of Locriens (2).

Pausanias pays (3) that the oldest function of the college of the sixteen matrons of Elect consisted in the office déjuges with the public lawsuits, and it adds, that one named there not only oldest, but still those which were characterized by their birth. It is this college which by amicable agreement arranged an old quarrel which

(1) Polyb., XII, 5.

(2) Aojtpoj A.ehéyixv riyvisa^o Ko.kv,

(3) Pausan., V, 16 and V, 15. 12.

had remained between those of Elect and Cob; it lost its political importance later, but it preserved certain religious prerogatives in the worship of Junon. Little before, Pausanias told that Eléens offer drinkings not only to the heroes of their country, but still with their wives. - The gynécocratie is ensured for the high antiquity of Mantinée. Bachofen (1) would like to conclude it from the great number of female divinities adored in this city, such as: Vesta, Autonoé, Latona, Hera, Athéné, Hébé, Pénélope, Mœra, without counting those which appear in the mysteries of Samothrace; because, he, those of Mantinée as well as Arcadiens add, were plain to the inhabitants of Samothrace by the worship of Cabires, which was common for them.

But the country where the woman enjoyed in the past and very a long time many privileges and an exceptional situation, it is Lycie. One knows that this one was, at the time of the immigration of the Greeks in the peninsula of Balkan, the refuge of the primitive race overcome, driven back and oppressed. It is there that withdraw Lélèges of Crete and the Attic (Lykos); it is there that we find the cousin of Teucer, Trambelos. Lyciens are the allies of Troyens; it is after all the same people; the cities, the mountains, the rivers of their respective countries, bear identical names.

However, Hérodote (2) ensures us that Lyciens have an odd law that do not have other people. They took the name of their mother and not that of their father. If one

(1) Bachofen, Mutterrecht, p. 354,

(2) Hérod, I, 173, VII, 92,

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:09 am

ask Lycien with which family it belongs, it will indicate the genealogy of his/her mother and the grandmothers of her mother. If a free woman has suddenly linked herself with a slave, the children are regarded as noble blood; but if on the contrary, a citizen, even of the most famous row, takes a concubine or foreign, the children are excluded from the honors. Héraclide de Pont goes even further; he says that as of the oldest times, Lyciens were controlled by the women; and Nicolas of Damas ensures that at Lyciens the sons did not inherit, but the girls (1).

How long was this gynécocratie maintained chez' Lyciens? It goes back to the legendary times (2). Bellérophon, after having pushed back Amazones and having overcome other enemies of king Jobate, is frustrated by this last of the reward which was due for him. He then begs Neptune to avenge it by flooding Lycie. Vainly following the devastations caused by the flood, the men beg Bellérophon to let themselves bend. But when the women advance with her meeting and “between in its eyes their tunics” Bellérophon open, full with respect to the sight of the emblem die métérien, withdraws itself and with its retirement the flood ceases.

In spite of these concordant opinions of the former historians, and in spite of well-known obstinacy with which Lyciens stuck to their traditions, the inscriptions which one finds on their monuments, do not provide, if as well is as one succeeded in deciphering them, - no exem-

(1) Héracl. Bridge., fragm. 15; Nicolas Damasc. fragm. 129.

(2) Plutarch., of Virtute mul., C. ix.

magpie in favour of the assertion of Hérodote, that Lyciens would have been named according to their mother and not according to their father (1).

It should be believed that the primitive populations of Asia Mineure and Greece, put in contact with the races of the North where the role of the man was dominating, modified their manners, while leaving for the woman most of her prestige. The extreme care is known, with which Lyciens built their tombs (2). Believing firmly in another life, with a peaceful life after death, they endeavoured to ensure their bodies as of their alive asylum as inviolable as the Egyptians with their mummies. They could not have also left to the women the broadest place in the private life, as appear to have made the Egyptians, whose Sophocle says to us that they remained sitted in the interior of the houses working with the fabric, while their partners were going to provide for the outside with the needs for the life (31. And however, nobody says to us that in Egypt the organization of the company rested on the preponderance of the woman. Didn't the Athenians support that the Spartans also were controlled by the women, because those enjoyed in Laconie a freedom larger than in the Attic?

It appears probable that in right times héroïquesles of the two sexes were not well defined. A tradition appears to be preserved in Greece, that at a given time, the men would have withdrawn with the women political straight. It is brought back by S. Augustin (1), which claims to have found it in Varron. It was under the reign of Cécrops. It was a question of knowing if the town of Athens would be named according to the goddess Pallas Athéné or the Neptune god. In the public assembly convened by the king, the men would have voted for the god, the women for Pallas Athéné, and as they would have had a voice moreover, they would have carried it. At this point in time at the instigation of Neptune, the men, to punish their wives, would have removed to them, initially, their right to vote; in the second place, it would have been defended with the children to bear the maternal name; finally, themselves would have been forced to give up under the Athenian ones, i.e. from this day they would have been only the wives of the Athenians and either of the citizens.

(1) Duncker, I, 423.

(2) Duncker, ibid, p. 424.

(3) Sophocle, (ED., with Colone, v. 328 and suiv.

;.

Though this detached page of the history of the high antiquity of Athens has a character singularly apocryphal book, it seems to come in support of our opinion about the considerable role to allot to the woman in the world pelasgic. Vainly Mr. Bachofen (2) in his two works maintains us it wisdom, of the honest and peaceful spirit (svpo/x. /o., eaqpoffvvn) of the tribes living under the law démétérienne. They did not know to take row among the races which left a deep trace in the history and which have advanced the cause of progress. They did not have the force to impose their constitutive principle on their neighbors, they did not found anything of

(1) August., of Civit. Dei, 18,9.

(2) Das Mutterrecht and das Lykische Volk.

large, they did not know to resist to the strong people, where the man was the Master. That is included/understood: the nations which live under the law of the woman, are nations casanières, where the virtues of the family reign. The men defend the native ground bravely in vain; as they take as a starting point the will of the weakest sex, they do not conceive vast projects, they do not dream of remote conquests, they do not only think of strongly constituting the city.

There was from time immemorial, there are still today in Africa some tribes where the woman or, for better saying, the mother is used as pivot with the family and the company. Of VIIe with Xe century of our era, there existed on the borders of the Chinese empire, in which it was wedged later, a kingdom controlled by women (1). But here a fact which interests us in a particular way: the race which with that of Pélasges is oldest on the ground of the continent of Europe, that of Ibères, race which exists still today, in the north of Spain, under the name of the Basque people, lived unmemorable time and lives still now partly under the law of the woman. Already Strabon points out (2), that to Cantabres, the husbands bring a dowry to their wives, that the girls only inherit their parents there, and that it is with them that returns the care to establish their brothers. Similar usagessont as much demarquesd' a government gynéco- cratic. Bachofen endeavours to show that similar manners reigned in all the extent of the peninsula

(1) The Mother, by Giraud-Teulon, p. 50.

(2) StraboQ, III, p. 165.

U

Iberian; in the wars which they had there to support, Carthaginois and Romans retained as an hostage, not, like elsewhere, of the valid men, but of the women and the girls (1). However, these strange manners were preserved through the centuries among Basques. In his so interesting work (right of family to the Pyrenees 1859), Mr. Cordier proved that the husband on their premises is condemned to a secondary role, and that the law imposed by the French revolution, cannot raise it of its inferiority. “Still today in the country, when it is a girl who is the elder one, it becomes the true head of the household, and actually the only heiress. Then still she exerts the power in the house and people of the country say, that her husband is its first servant; - with more its business man. He did not bring in the house, with his person, but his work and the hope of a posterity. With the eyes of the company, it is the woman who personifies the house and not the husband (2). ”

After that G. of Humboldt can be right to allot to old Ibères, like milks principal of their character, the love of peace and the rest (3); we will not be astonished any more, when it is taught us that a intellectual aristocracy been lacking in Navarre, “C which it was not yet among Basques” only one poet to sing their glories, their traditions, their regrets; that they have writers, not artists, neither musician, neither painter, nor sculptor. Bottom of the race,

(1) Bachofen, Mutterrecht, p. 145.

(2) Giraud-Teulon. the Mother, p. 43.

(3) G. of Humboldt. Gesammelte Schriften, II, 158.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:10 am

us are said, is excellent, but a higher talent does not emerge any (1). ”

The races living under the law of the woman did not have history and could not have some. Uncertainty where we are, at the place of the destinies of the people of Pélasges and Lélèges, perhaps partly holds with the mode under which he lived, and with the indifference for the superior interests of the human spirit that this mode seems to imply (2).

§6. - Moral Reaction of the Greeks and the Hebrews.

It would be undoubtedly bold to affirm that at the time when Yavanàs emerged in Greece, toules the populations sitting on the edges of the Mediterranean underwent the yoke of the gynécocratie. But what we know of the worships of the Semites, the African races and even of Pélasges; unquestionable knowledge that us

(1) Louis - Moor. Travel in the Basque Country (in the Review of the Two-Worlds of February 15, 1877, p. 815.

(2) If the Albanians, descendants of Pélasges and Lélèges, have a history and a national poetry since the XV° century, it estque, dissimilar auxBasques, ilsparaissent to have broken with manners and the habits of their ancestors. They were seen moreover obliged to defend a more expensive thing with the men than independence even, their religion. They took share, nowadays, with the heroic rising of Hellènes; they regarded the cause of the latter as theirs, and they were painfully surprised when they were seen frustrated fruit of a victory which they had helped to gain. However, they always hope for Confiants in the justice of Europe, supported by the word and the feather of their famous compatriot. Gilded of Istria and valiant phalange of friends which surrounds it, they wait until the day of the delivery rises finally on their controlled country.

let us have prostitution of the women in Babel, young girls with Sardes and in Paphos, formation of groups of men and women devoted to the gods of pleasure, make us believe, that at that time distant, the reports/ratios of the sexes were not regulated in accordance with the laws of morals and the decency, and that the purer men of North, like the so sober inhabitants of deserted Arabia, could be shocked spectacle of the swerves to which they assisted. Excesses of a naturalism naive, but unrestrained and irritating, were stopped partly and fought with excess by the races of elite of Yavan and Israel.

The poetry and the legendary history of old Greece appear only one long protest against manners and impure habits and often bloodthirsty men of the Eastern races which already started to invade the ground of Greece. The city of Cadméens is certainly one of the oldest hearths of civilization phenician in Greece. It is there that men are strangled by the Sphinx, probably an idol of the Moloch god or the Astarté goddess; it is there that the “orgies” of Bacchus were celebrated très-anciennement; it that within the royal family occur, is devoted there by Asian and African uses, these incestueuses unions, whose marriage of Qîdipe provides us a sad example. From there the rising of the Greek populations; from there these ceaseless wars supported by Argos and its confederated against Thèbes, wars which ended in the ruin of the capital beyond Béotie and the expulsion of Phéniciens. In the legend of Argonautes, we see

Jason subjugated initially by tempting and cunning Médée, then to leave the foreign one to link itself with a person of her own nation. Thus Ulysses finds at Calypso, Circé, of easy pleasures, but it is not forgotten there; it does not have no concern of being seen metamorphosed in pourceau, following the example his companions; its thought is at Pénélope and of his/her son, his heart aspires only to the holy joys of the hearth. Hadn't the Trojan War been lit by Paris, the Asian seducer? Didn't the Greeks fight there under the patronage of wise and virginal Âthéné and under that of Junon, protective of the bridal layer against Venus, goddess of the insane loves? Hadn't Hercules himself torn off arms of Omphale, and being able to take pleasure for guide of its life, it had not chosen the virtue? As for Thésée, the Hercules of Ionian, it is introduced to us in the mythical accounts which had course on him, like the incarnation of the Greek genius even. It is him which kills the bull of Crete and which puts an end to the odious domination Semites in the Attic and at the human sacrifices that it imposed; it is him which demolishes and expels ground of the fatherland Amazones, these priestesses armed with cruel Astarté and incidentally with voluptuous Ashérah. It involves with him Ariadné, the girl of Minos, until Naxos, but there it leaves it not to think more from now on but of its mission of liberator and king. However, we know today that this Ariadné or gné Aria was only another name for Aphrodite, that the inhabitants of Naxos venerated even two Ariadné, one in the middle of the dances and of the festivals; the other with all the demonstrations of mourning and desolation. It is manifest that this Ariadné thus joined together so opposite qualities of a beneficial goddess supporting the fertility of the ground and the fruitfulness of the women, and of a terrible, hostile goddess with abundance, the love, happiness, and that she is not other than famous Astarté - Ashérah of the Semites (1). It was natural that Thésée gave up the island of Naxos for that of Délos, and the worship of the Asian goddess for that of the god of the light, arts and poetry, Apollon.

He was known as higher, than Pélasges and Lélèges had opposed only one low resistance to the taking possession of the ground by the worships and the colonists of Asia and Africa. They adored themselves the producing and reproductive power nature; maternity was for them the highest expression of this power. But they appear to have tasted only poorly the furies and the disorders which so often accompanied religious solemnities by the Asian ones. In Thesmo- phories which was later a Hellenic festival, as in the mysteries of Eleusis and undoubtedly also in the other mysteries, the women adored Jcte/j, emblem of fruitfulness, but they appear to be at the same time committed with an honest and pure life. In Lycie, Bellérophon does not fight only terrible Solymes and their gods (for example Arselis, i.e.

(1) See Plut. Thésée, CH. xviu, and Duncker, I, p. 108. The name of the island of Naxos comes it from Hebrew nakad; in this case the direction would be: remarkable, excel? Or of Albanian vitfy violent one, vehement, because of the exubérance of the rich person vegetation by whom Naxos was characterized?

chop of God, for C/iars-El), but still the fanatic gynécocratie of Amazones.

Under a torrid sky, and under more difficult conditions, Israel tested on its side, within its nationality, to ensure the preponderance the higher instincts of the human heart. One is struck resemblance which certain legends of the Greeks with the accounts of the Bible present. Bellérophon calumniated per Sthene bée, as Hippolyte was it by Phèdre, makes think of Joseph who remains faithful to his Master and pushes back the love of the woman of Putiphar; Hercules, Ulysses, Thésée were torn off with pleasures where manners and the worships of foreign races had plunged. Thus Samson, who had dropped himself, irritated, between the arms of Dalilah, leaves his lowering by an effort of his will, and by a last exploit, avenges its people and itself. More severely than the Greeks, the Hebrews proscribed the vice that certain religions ordered. The laws of Lévitique and Deutéronome defend to raise statues with Astarté, to carry in the house of Jehovah the price of the prostitution, to split the skin, to be made give the tonsure (as it was the use in certain worships of the Syrians). No eunuque was to enter the company of Israel, no woman to wear men's clothes, no man of clothing of woman (1).

Like the Greeks and much more than the Greeks, the Hebrews were hostile with the human sacrifices. Though the Bible mentions of them some in the history of Israel,

(1) Duncker, I, p. 275 (edict. from 1874).

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:10 am

the account of the Genesis showing us Abraham ready to offer to God the blood of his only son and stopped by the voice of God himself, condemns these sacrifices in theory. Abraham in the place of his/her child, sacrifices a ram to Jéhovah. Thus Iphigénie should not perish under the knife of Calchas. A hind is substituted to him on the furnace bridge of Diane. The goddess saves the girl of the kings and in fact her priestess. Indeed, according to the belief of the former Semites, the life of elder several wire was due to Jéhovah. The mosaic law replaced in a regular way this dreadful sacrifice by the surrogat of the paschal lamb and, in a more general way, by the circumcision (1). But Phéniciens preserved it, and they propagated the use in their colonies of it, in the islands of Egée, on all the coasts of Greece where they established their stations. We found the traces with Thèbes of them, in Sparte (Artémis Orthosienne), in Halos (Athamantides), on the Lycéen mount in Arcadie, in Athens even (girls of Erechthée). The antique worship of Aryâs had not known these bloody atonements. They were abolished everywhere, after the expulsion of Phéniciens, thanks to the softer and more human religion of Hellènes.

Would the resemblance of certain legends and traditions of the Greeks and the Hebrews be simply due randomly or to funds, commun run with all humanity, high feelings which can extremely well be done day at the same time on several points of the sphere? But, could one answer, Assyrians and especially Phéniciens exerted an influence

(1) Duncker, I, p. 278 (edict. from 1863).

deep on the beginnings of Greek civilization; didn't the vessels of the latter which carried everywhere with their productions, industries, the letters and the legends of the motherland, count among their sailors, their sailors or their slaves, of the sectateurs of the mosaic faith? Nothing prevents from supposing that reports/ratios thus existed in highest antiquity between Israel and Javan. A bringing together presented by Mr. Duncker between a biblical account and a Greek legend, would tend to corroborate this opinion. The Greeks called Melikertes (Melkart, i.e. Hercules) which they venerated in Corinthe na.^M^a>v, i.e. the fighter. They tell, that Hercules Palœmon would have fought with Jupiter dansl' arena in Olympie, that Jupiter would not have succeeded in overcoming it; that Hercules Paleemon would have fought with Hip- pokoon, and that it would have been wounded with the thigh (1). It is the young and beneficial god, observes Mr. Duncker, who fights here the former god relentless and frightening, quiluiôtela force to harm from now on, but which does not leave the fight without being itself reached. Thus the Bible teaches us how Jacob fought with Jéhovah with Pniel in darkness. Jéhovah is a terrible and courroucé god, of which the aspect keep silent. Jacob can throw the eyes on him only nuitamment. He fights with Jéhovah until he obtained from the latter the promise to save his race, to cover it its protection, to fill it its benefits. He tore off in Jéhovah his blessing, he will be called from now on “Israel” that which fought with God; but it is

(1) Pausanias, III, 9,15,3.

wounded with the thigh. The genius of the two races arises highly in the so different way of which they considered the myth cananéen. Where the Greek believes to recognize the triumph of a generation of more human and more intelligent gods, the Hebrew wants to see only the effort made by the Juste to secure divine protection (1).

If Europe did not become another Asia, it is to the Greeks and more still in Israel than let us owe we it. While penetrating in the beautiful climates of midday, the Greeks seized body with body the East, brilliance of wonders and already growing old. Of this strong pressure are left masterpieces poetry and visual arts, which revealed with the human nature its own splendour, which still today confuses at the same time and raises our imagination, and is used as guide with our taste. The race which gave birth to them, another Sole, perishes after the achievement of its task. Its creations alone survived; the ideal of beautiful remained upright in the middle of the ruins of antiquity. Concurrently to another ideal not intended grew to him to produce harmonious worms and beautiful statues, but to make the more perfect hearts purer and men. It was the ideal of the good; he to make a fatherland on ground, such was the mission of Israel. This fatherland which it was necessary to initially dispute with hundred keen enemies and of which later tore off it, one day, the iron of the Romans, extends today almost to the borders from the civilized world. Thanks to the moral law proclaimed by Brace, with the prophets who commented on it, Christ and the apostles who gave him

(1) Duncker, I, p 372,373, edict. from 1863.

all its application by preaching it to Nice, Europe is devenne a Palestine news. By an odd misinterpretation, the race which had brought safety to the world, had only remained excluded from the great community of the people. She persevered however and after a eighteen centuries martyrdom, she triumphed. It could not about it be differently. We live in a time when in spite of contrary appearances, the faith and the reason are about to give the hand and to make peace. However, of which, if it is not of Israel, can one say: what it was right faith in its reason, and in its faith? How thus it could have perished? The history would be nothing any more but one long comedy, bloody and méprisable; mankind would have been dishonoured. Israel had faith also in the human nature, in the future which belongs to God. The posterity always returns justice, early or late, and it was late this time, with those which are strong, faithful and honest until the end.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:11 am

FIFTH BOOK

IAVAN, YAVANAS & IONIAN

§ 1. - Japetos.

Genesis and oldest traditions
Greeks.

The Greeks did not have any memory of their origin; at the most beautiful time of their history, they did not hesitate to proclaim autochthones. This claim with the tochthonie filled them of pride. Arcadiens, which during centuries had not been worried in their mountains, were said older than the moon (1), and the Athenians, not to yield it to the inhabitants of the most rustic canton of the Peloponnese, affirmed that they had the age of the sun.

A very old legend should however have recalled to all the Greeks indistinctly, who they came by far; because this legend gave them for first author Titan,

(1) Schol., AD Aristoph. iVub., 398.

Japetos. Wasn't this him, that via Deucalion, killed Helene, the grandfather of their race? However, Japetos itself was presented like the son of the Ocean and Asia, and this darkened tradition and as erased by time is being in conformity with the truth than the assertions ventured rhéteurs as philosophical Isocrate oumêmede commePlaton.il is not need to recall, I suppose, than Japetos, in the little changed form of Japhet, is considered in the Genesis,

**** > ''' * ' **/>? * like young person of three wire of the Noah patriarch.

T? R \ v*re' etia. Ar* the names change, but the funds even of our Ge

FF U pr&tict. ''°

tripartite nealogy remains in the antiques accounts of India. Those mention the country of Kashmire where the Genesis speaks about the Ararat mount; Japhet of the latter, for them, is Dyapati. This name, by its formation, reveals us an origin all arienne. It is necessary to draw aside the etymology suggested by Otfried Muller (lâveros of /crrra, to strike, spring, because of the part played in Greek mythology by Titan); it is necessary to also be wary of that which hébraïsants put in front of beautiful HS*, flourishing, because of the clear dye, coloured which characterizes the men of North, especially when one compares them to the inhabitants tropical countries, with wire of Cham to the dark dye (1).

The homophony which strikes us in the Dyapati names, Japhet, 'Is^rêTÔj, could be under consideration like a result of the chance; but she repeats herself in that of Javan of the Bible, which is presented to us like the son of Japhet;

(1) Hebrew Cham means heat; chemi black cotton soil.

in the Ion of the Greeks and Yavanas quoted by the authors of the peninsula of Gange.

The oldest shape of Ion at Hellènes is '1<W, 'làfav, 'Lâ.fmi. It is already in Iliade (1). It is employed constantly by Eschyle in its Persians and its Begging, and by Aristophane in its Acharniens. Neither Eschyle nor Aristophane were unaware of that Persians understood by Jâon, not only the Ionian ones, but all the Greeks. It was the same for the Hebrews, as well-known passages of Daniel and Ezéchiel prove it. Finally the Hindu ones seem by the name Yavanas to have designated in block all the people of the Occident. Javan, according to the Genesis had four wire: Elishah, Tarshish, Dodanim etKittim. One developed much the regions or the cities to which these four names can be referred; it is a question which we do not propose to treat thoroughly. We indeed think like fire Bœckh, that by Tarshish, one should not hear Tartessus in Spain, but rather Tarsus, old capital of Cilicie, where from time immemorial one saw flowing much from abroad, and where, according to a well-known tradition, Triptolème had led, at one time former to the Greek history itself, an Ar giens colony. Kittim can be identified without hesitation with the island of Cyprus (2) invaded early by Po

(1) Iliad. II, v. 685.

(2) One understood by Kittim the islands and the coasts close to Asia Mineure. The plural ending explains this denomination besides. One also knows, who in high antiquity, the proper names of the individuals often indicated either of the whole people, or of

pulations of Palestine. But the Greeks also were there little of times after fixed at Salamine, Kourion, Soli, Kition even. In bilingual inscriptions arrived to us, the words îshkitti which désignentun Cypriote, are in the text phenician placed compared to the Greek text.

In Elishah, the ones wanted to find Hellade, the others Elides it. Those which will lean for the first explanation, will quote Ezéchiel making come purple “from the Elisha island,” and they will make the point that in Hermione one collected the famous shells which provided the so required color. But, when well even Ezéchiel would have thought, while being expressed like it makes, in whole Greece, I would still persist in believing that the Semitic word answers Elide attended by Phéniciens. These are the latter which partly gave their names to the rivers, the cities, the headlands and even to the kings of the country, and perhaps with the country itself (èl god) (1).

Lastly, in Dodanim everyone can recognize easily Dodone, the oldest religious center of Greece. But those which would like to see Semites everywhere, claim that Dodanim is only another form for Dedanim, well-known tribe of Arabia; without counting that others, being based on the extreme resemblance of the letters D and Hebrew R (~ \, “I), would like to read Rhodanim. The island of Rhodes was colonized early by Phéniciens; the names of the mountains and the Gods that one adored there, are Semitic. However, the name of the island itself is not explained by a Hebraic root. In Greek, psJV means the rosy one, which does not give either a satisfactory direction. We would like to best explain by Albanian pefoiy I surround, or the preposition ppéS around, with the entour, pciréa. ring of a barrel, or ppouîr I roll to make smaller, I collect. Rhodos would be the small round ground. It is necessary to acknowledge that names of the three towns of Rhodos: Lindos, Jalysos and Kameiros also appear of Albanian origin. Lindos comes from hjivS' I give birth to, and perhaps means nativitas Deœ; there was in this city a famous worship of Athéné, Astarté de Sidon. We indicated to book IV the etymology of Jalysos and Cameiros.

institutions or of the phases of civilization of these people. It is obvious that a man alone could not be called Kittim or Dodanim, not more than under no circumstances would it exist Amphiktyon alone, a around remaining individual. The practices of abstraction were not very widespread in primitive times, and the imagination of the men liked to pile up then in a person of the ideas or beings collective. (1) One finds in Elides a Jardanus river being thrown in the sea close to a Phea city (peh stops, mouth); a city and a source of the name of Salmoné (shalàm peace). - The same name meets in Crete, where it indicates a headland, - finally king Salmonée, wire of Eole, brother of Sisyphus and father of a girl called Tyro. (Cpr. the name of the town of Tyr.)

However, there is no reason to reject the Dodanim lesson. The coasts of Epire were perfectly known of Phéniciens. A légendo reports that Cadmus was transported towards the end of its days with his Harmonia wife at Enchéléens, tribe of ITllyrie. One is not unaware of that there was in Chaonie, not far from the edges of the sea, an old Phœnike city, and all close a Scamandre river. In Epidamnos, in Yllly- laugh nova, one found the traditions religious of the year

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:13 am

Thèbes tick and more than one to remember the East. Let us recall that in the south of the current city of Bérat (Antipatria), there were two small towns of the name of Ilion.

§ 2. - Seniority of the traditions of the Genesis about lavan,

Some opinion that one creates EC genealogy of the Genesis, by what it learns us as by what it conceals, it seems to prove that it is former to the Homeric poems, i.e. with the oldest traditions of Greece. Indeed, this genealogy us watch-T-it not Semites maintaining the relations with Dodone, the most ancient hearth of Hellenic civilization? It does not mention any of Delphes, Mycènes, Argos, Iolkos, Corinth, Thèbes. It names Javan, it is true; unfortunately the Ionian ones do not play any serious part in the Trojan War, and the rare passages where Homère depicts them to us vêtus their long trailing dresses (Ihnsy^hai/es) are suspect in more than one way. It is not all: the Javan form of which the Genesis is useful, is obviously older than that D " iiW of use among Greeks. The name of Javan preserved in the Bible its two has primitive. However the word does not find its explanation in the Semitic idioms. Hebrew Javan seems to mean to ferment and have given rise to the two words javen mud, and jajin wine. Us here are brought back behind to Sanskrit yavanas or yuvanas, forts, young people, brilliances. The comparative one and the superlative of the adjective is known to us by grammar sanscrite: yavîyas. yavîshthas. The word yuvan OMyavan, fact part of the great number of words which constitute the vocabulary common to all the aphetic populations J. Be necessary-it to believe that to one prehistoric time, Aryâs of Indus gave the name of “young people” and of “vigorous” in the bold emigrants who went ahead towards the unknown areas of the West? Be necessary-it to believe that they were indicated under this name by the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Lydians, Phéniciens? But then, when we meet this name of Yavanas in the epopees of Râmâyana and Mahâbhârata, it ceases being a proof against high antiquity of these poems; this name would not have been pronounced for the first time in front of the ears of Hindu at the time of the conquest of Alexandre; since they would have given it more than five thousand years before to the Western tribes of their own race!

The word of Yavan, under consideration like adjectival name or proper name, appearing very-old in the East and relatively new among Greeks, Movers emitted the opinion that the Asian ones would have initially imposed it on the Greek populations with which they would have been most frequently in contact, i.e. with the inhabitants of Millet, Ephèse and with the others ten cities of the confederation known as Ionian, then by extension to all the Greeks together.

It is extremely well. But how to admit that a nation being aware of its dignity and not being forced by the conquest is not solved there to exchange its own name against another by which like it foreigners to indicate it? The thing, in truth, is if not very probable, that it appears urgent to determine before all the moment when the name the Ionian ones starts to make some noise in the history in general, and in that of the Greeks in particular.

§ 3. - First mention of Ionian in a Greek historian.

There is a passage in Hérodote (I) where the Ionian ones are presented as being about contemporary establishment of Phéniciens in Greece under Cadmus, and where they are regarded at the same time as their closer neighbors. Phéniciens would have spread, known as-it, the use of the letters among Hellènes which, hitherto, did not know them. The Ionian ones would have been under this relationship the intermediaries between the whole nation and Phéniciens. Installed very close to them (- repioineav <T “ff<tea.s}, they would have received the alphabetical characters from them, and they would have slightly modified them. Also, adds Hérodote the letters phenicians or “cadméennes” resemble-they especially to the Ionian letters. Moreover, the Ionian ones not call since the olden days the books &i@Mu>, but fiySéfcu goatskins or ewe,

(1) Hérod., V, 58.

- and, so far, much of barbarians make use of these skins to write there.

The chronology of Hérodote is prone to guarantee: for him Cadmus would have lived about 1500; but, according to the most recent research, the colonies the oldest desPhenicians would not be former to 1300? This date would assign however with the existence of Ionian higher existence than the events of the Trojan War.

The other passages where Hérodote mentions Ionian seem to have milked with more recent facts (1). The Ionian ones, we known as-it, appear to have wanted to receive only twelve cities in their confederation in Asia, because, at the time where they lived the Peloponnese, before being expelled by the Achaens, their territory contained only twelve cities pareillement, and that this number had been preserved by the Achaens their successors. - Be-EC well by the name the Ionian ones that one did indicate commonly the former inhabitants of Achaïe, before the invasion of the men of North? Among inhabitants of the septentrional coasts of the Peloponnese, known as Pausanias (2), one quoted like first king Egialée, born from the ground. Egialée wants to say: inhabitant of the littoral; from there the name of Egialéens given to the tribes which extended since Dymé, located at the extreme West, until Trézène, the city bordering on the side of the East. Indeed, all this territory, which time of the Trojan War appears to have obeyed the sceptre of Agamemnon, is called JEgialos by

(1) Hérod., 1,141,146.

(2) Paus., II, 5.

Homère (1). Congeneric tribes, speaking the same dialect, lived the Isthmus, the Attic and the Eubée island, and were included/understood later, according to the opinion of Dun- cker (2), under the name of Ioniens. One would be been willing to believe that the Amphictyonie antique which sat in the island of Calaurie and to which belonged the seven following cities: Hermione, Epidaure, Prasies, Nauplie, Egine, Athens and Orchomenos, were especially made up by the Ionian ones. It existed before the invasion of Doriens, since Sparte replaced Prasies there only later, and that Or- chomenos seems to appear in it in the place and place of Thèbes, of which it is not question. It is certain that Minyens d' Orchomenos, which did not want to be subjected to Arnéens come to occupy their country, took refuge with Athens, metropolis of Ionian, and asylum of the antiques Greek populations expelled of their territories.

§ 4. - Ion and Thésée.

In the high antiquity of this last city, two names shine of a purely legendary glare; they are those of Ion and Thésée. They seem to be attached to two facts of extreme importance for the future of the Attic: the meeting of all the communities of the canton under the supremacy of Athens become capital, then the stamping from the country of the yoke of Phéniciens, of which

(1) Iliad., II, 575, cùynt.xi) V you àvct

(2) Duncker, III, p. 91.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:13 am

Minos is, in the legendary history of Greece, the most projecting representative. Though the two facts are allotted by the tradition to only Thésée, it is necessary to believe that the famous <rw<im.is [j.<> (is at least partly the work of the heroes appointed under the name of Ion and of Xu- thus father of Ion, while the expulsion of the worships and the Semitic garrisons, which was the natural sequence, will have been carried out by Trézénien Thésée. Hérodote, which is the faithful interpreter of the ancient legends, calls expressly Ion the general of the Athenians (1). Indeed, Xu- thus having come from Thessalie to be established in Tetra- polished (made up of the four boroughs: Œnoé, Trikorythos, Probalinthos and Marathon), Ion, his/her son, carried help in Erechthée, king d' Athènes, fighting painfully against Eumolpos, king d' Eleusis, and its Thraces. Eleusis was joined together in Athens, and Ion was proclaimed sovereign of this last city. According to another tradition, Xuthus, wire of Eole, would have helped Erechthée to overcome Cholcodonti- of Eubée. In any event, it will not be without the long ones and persevering efforts that the Ionian ones of Tétrapolis will have managed to be fixed on the large close island. The unification of the Attic appears to have been the result of internal conflicts, burning and prolonged; because we find in Athens, after Ion, or beside him, a king Pan- dion which divides the country between its four sons: Pallas, Lykos, Nisos and Egée. The division of the Attic in four districts (Sounion or South, Diakris, Mégare and the Isthmus, and finally Athens and its surroundings), are one of

(1) Hérodote, VIII, 44.

facts very few on which the serious authors of Atthides were about all of agreement. It would be Thésée which would have put an end to definitively this state of affairs if threatening for independence of the canton. Thésée was to have achieved all the philosopher's stones of the legendary past of Athens; it was necessary that it was as large as the national hero of Sparte, and than he presented himself in the legendary history of Greece like another Hercules!

On the other hand, it is in Ion that the tradition allots the distribution of all the inhabitants of the Attic in four classes or tribes, or rather she personifies these four classes in the names of Géléon, Hoplès, Arga- as of, ^Egikoreus, aïeux of the four groups of citizens, and at the same time wire of Ion (1). However, it appears established according to recent research, that it is necessary to see in these four tribes four corporations peerage-books, drawing their name at the same time like life which reigned in their respective districts and of the row that they occupied in the whole canton (2). The first tribe was that of Eupatrides of Athens, whose properties were located in the valley of Cephissos, Géléontes or the Famous ones, of yths~v or ytM.v which in the past had the direction of ha.fji.veiv. Thus Zeùt yehéav is resplendent Jupiter (3). The second tribe was that of Hoplites or warriors confined in Tétrapolis de Marathon, virile population which had as a Hercules owner, and Dioscures;

(1) Bœckh, Course of Greek antiquities, 1836.

(2) Duncker, III, 511,512.

(3) Bœckh explains yeahéaf: farmers or: farmers?

while the Athenians venerated, with Erechthée, preferably Pallas Athéné, the goddess of the ploughmen, as those of Eleusis dedicated a dedicated worship with Déméter, protective of the fruits of the ground. Indeed, the former families of the campaigns of Eleusis, whose family tree was attached to Triptolème and Keleos, formed the third tribe, that of Argadeis or ploughmen; and those of which all the richness consisted in the herds of goats which grazed in the montueux grounds, extending from Parnès to the headland of Sounion, undoubtedly constituted the fourth tribe, that of the sEgi- koreis.

But if criticism succeeded in disentangling the true direction of the division of the Attic in four tribes, it is manifest also that the tradition which us informs of it, must be identical, or little is necessary some, with the legend, according to which king Pandion divided the country between his four sons: Egée, Nisos, Lykos and Pallas. There is a difference however. Nisos had for its part the Isthmus and Mégare, territory which does not answer any of the four tribes referred to above and which appears to have belonged a long time to those of Eleusis. On the other hand, in the division of Pandion, we do not see a place for the noble families of Eleusis, included/understood in the class of Argadeis. In the fights which preceded the avramiff^tis, the preponderance in this corner of old the Attic would have belonged sometimes to Eleusis and sometimes to Mégare? One includes/understands extremely well that day when Eleusis ceased being a chief town, and where the central government was established in Athens, it was more difficult to defend the territory of Mégare against the companies of Doriens, Masters of the Peloponnese. But as long as Pélopides reigned in Mycènes, the canton of the Attic extended to the territory from Corinth, almost at the place where Thésée, in remembering the victory gained by him over Sinis the ploy or of pines (Trnvax.à.fj.Tnnf), instituted the Isthmiques plays, with the celebration of which the Athenians, even after the conquest of Doriens, always took share, and where they enjoyed certain prerogatives. It is there that one saw, according to a tradition devoted by Strabon (1), the ancient terminal which carried on its Eastern face this inscription:

Tâcf' ovy) YltKoirwvHSof with-K^' 'lavia. and on the opposite face:

Tettf' érri Tli^Trwvtiaof, ovx. 'lut/la.

Let us recall lastly that, according to a note of Pollux (2), Cécrops would have divided the Attic into four districts: Aktœa (the southernmost point), Mesogœa (the center), Paralia (the strip of land since Sounion to Athens) and Diakris (the territory since the Parnès mount until Brauron and Marathon.

(1) Strab., IV, p. 392 and Plutarque Teas., CH. xxv.

(2) Pollux, VIII, 109.

§ 5. - Continuation of the same subject. - Thésée, Ion and Ionian.

While there looking of close one is convinced that the authors of Atthides and the writers who followed them, considered the old story of the Attic as we see the objects refracted on a sheet of paper white in a camera will obscura. These objects are reversed, and the men walk on their head. One could never have persuaded with an Athenian that Salamine had not always been a Greek island, that Phéniciens had probably given him its first inhabitants and even his name (shalôm peace); that, when Teucer expelled by his/her father, is established with his companions in another Salamine, that of the island of Cyprus, it was not a colony which it founded, it was with the metropolis that it turned over. The true colony it was Salamine Greek. Thus the Athenians, accustomed to see in the Attic only one canton strongly centralized could be explained only by one division between wire of one their former kings the primitive parcelling out of their country, whose memory vagueness had however been preserved. Many attempts to put an end to it had to be made; the need to link itself to overcome and absorb old natural countries, Pélasges and Lélèges (1), then to push back Phéniciens which on several occasions had taken foot on the coasts of Atti-

(1) See our observations on EWT6TH, XoAA” '<T<*/, Ai/xo;.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:13 am

that (1) had to ensure success finally of them. The Athenians allot to only Thésée, which was perhaps the work of several chiefs and the efforts of several generations. Furthermore, Thésée (Qnaeii) is a verbal substantive of creation perhaps rather recent; it means: founder. This circumstance alone would undoubtedly not be enough to dispute the existence of a king having borne this name. The famous lyric poet didn't Tisias keep the name of Stésichoros which were worth to him its occupations and a happy innovation introduced by him into the constitution of the choruses? At all events, Thésée is for us the representative of old the lonie legendary and heroic, this lonie which did not include/understand only the Attic and Eubée, but still Achaïe and part of Argolide, in particular Trézène, the native place of the hero (2). The Athenians were forced to grant that Thésée was not one their fellow-citizens; and it is about certain that the movement which unified the country by subjecting it to the direction of Athens, did not leave this city; its mythogra- phes would not have failed to make known to us a so glorious event. Thésée had its strong castle with Aphidna; it overcame in Marathon the bull come from Crete through the sea; it is more than probable that it

(1) The fact of an old phenician establishment on the ground of the Attic appears attested by the tradition that king Porphyrion would have reigned there before Aktaeos. Porphyrion, it is the sinning man the famous shells. The bull of Marathon come from Crete, the troop of Amazones combatant in the streets of Athens against Thésée, and the tribute of human flesh that the Attic was forced to pay in Minos; as many evidence of the hegemony exerted by the Semites on the children of Erechthée, and probably on the Greeks of the islands and the ports. - Pausan., I, 14,7; Duncker, III, p. 97 and suiv.

(2) See what we said on Trézène to the second book.

will have been the chief of the Ionian benches in trimmings of Diakris. We think as Preller that Hoplites de Marathon were entirely composed of Ionian, and that, if Ion itself cannot pass for the proper name of a king or a famous individual, it indicates at least a time when this name glorieusement was glorieusement carried by part of the population of the Attic and perhaps of whole Greece.

We know, indeed, that apart from Trézène and of Achaïe itself, other regions of Pélopo- nèse were inhabited by the Ionian ones. Such was the country of Pylos where reigned Nestor and Nélides, which later took refuge in Athens. One met besides in Elides a river of the name à' iluav which was an affluent of Alphée. One found in Messénie a place Kohavifes (1) inhabited by the descendants of Athenians, who would have been led there by king Colœnus, which would have been former to Cécrops even. These Ionian would have adopted only late manners and the language of Doriens. Let us not forget that Ko*.<at>l>s was a well-known dème of the Attic, the borough where Sophocle was born.

We expressed the opinion higher, than Prasies, like the others six villesfaisant left del' amphictyonie Calaurie, could have been an Ionian city well. - But, there existed precisely in the Attic one " [dème Prasies, which confirms our assumption singularly. Or Prasies of Laconie was simply a colony attic, where part of the inhabitants of Prasies

(1) Pausanias, IV, 34,8.

took refuge in the Attic at the time of the conquest of the EP loponèse by Doriens; what would not have taken place, so reports/ratios of good friendship had not existed between those of Athens and Prasies. We can say as much the island of Cythère of it, where Phéniciens established a station whose existence goes back to the Almighty antiquity. We already know by Hérodote which they are especially the Ionian ones which them first of all the Greeks entered in relation to these people if trading of Palestine. However, there was precisely in the Attic a dème which bore the name of Kvànpof.

The Ionian ones thus have, at one time former to the reign of Pélopides, cover of their colonies all the turn of the Peloponnese; part of Illyrie even appears to have borne the name of Ias. There is among the dèmes Attic of the names which are repeated in other parts of Greece and abroad, like OM “, 'K “pi “, MÉa/t”, 'E^aiovs, M/auto*, T “/x7Ô “. But we wanted to emphasize only those whose names are found in the countries which were completely dorisés later.

Edges of the Peloponnese having been inhabited formerly by the same race, that one indicated sometimes by the name of Egialéens (1), sometimes by that the Ionian ones, it is not difficult to find the reasons which can have contributed to make withdraw these names with those which lived the edges of midday, while leaving them to the inhabitants edges north. North remained in a narrower religious communion with the men of the Attic and

(1) Dictionary of Pope continued by Benseler, p. 29.

of Mégare, and appears to have formed with them a species of confederation. The inhabitants of the other parts of the peninsula, while keeping the generic name of Ionian, could indicate themselves by the name of the city or the territory which they occupied. Thus the She-cats, Suèves, the Vandals, Thuringes were all German, “Diutisk” i.e. populares, without however being called thus by the foreigners and without taking this name while speaking about themselves. But what appears especially during a certain time to have darkened the glare of the Ionian name, it is the glare thrown during the century which precedes the Trojan War, by the powerful dynasty of Pélo- pides. It was so dominating then, that one saw only it in the South of Greece, as one saw only that of Eacides in Thessalie. Pélo- pides had the roots of their power in Argo- lide; they reigned especially on Danai; Achilles ordered of Myrmidons and Hellènes. But joined together under the walls of Troy, the troops of the Peloponnese and Thessalie are indicated by the Achaen name. This name appears to stick especially to the military forces, so to speak continental (1) of the Greek populations organized and controlled for the first time by energetic families, valorous chiefs. The name the Ionian ones, on the contrary, appears to apply preferably to groups of adventurous sailors, being established volon-

(1) In spite of passage of Iliade, 1,108, where it is known as that Aga- memnon reigned on many islands, it is certain that at the time of the Trojan War, the navy of the Greeks was not yet quite frightening. Cariens still played a great part in the Aegean Sea.

third of Ci from there on the edges of the sea, going to the front of Phéniciens, of which they seem to have sought the company and on the traces of which they appear to have gone early. Homère does not refuse undoubtedly courage with kings such as Nestor and Ulysses, but he especially regards them as the first by the resources of their spirit, the trick and facundity.

§ 6. - Doriens in front of Athens.

One knows the revolution which upset, sixty years after the Trojan War, bases of the small states of Greece. Thessaliens, left Epire, made irruption in the Hémonie antique, on which they imposed their name. All those which do not want to be subjected are forced to emigrate. At this point in time Arnéens leave the edges of the Maliaque gulf, are thrown on Béotie, occupy Thèbes and Orchomenos; that Doriens gone down from Pinde, settle initially in the small territory which always bore their name since (Doride); then, being there with narrow, move towards the West, involving Etoliens, and joined together with them, pass the strait to Naupactos and make following long and keen wars the conquest of the whole Peloponnese. Deprived of their grounds, the Achaens of Argolide and the Mass denies throw themselves on the inhabitants of the coast of North, Egialéens, subject them partly, and partly expel them. In the middle of general confusion and misfortunes where the conquest plunged the old populations, it

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:14 am

canton of the Attic was the asylum of all those which preferred the exile with the constraint. Pélasges of Larissa, Lapithes de Gyrton and of Elatée, the big families of Orchomenoset de Thèbes, those of PylosetdeTrézène, Egialéens finally or Ionian, which had occupied the canton, from now on called Achaïe, had come to take refuge on the hospital ground of the children of Cécrops.

Doriens, after being itself seized Corinth, solved to attack the Attic, to conquer it and join thus, by the Isthmus, Doride their second fatherland. If the company had succeeded, Greece would have passed later under the yoke of Sparte, and the name of Lacédémoniens would have perhaps supplanted that of Hellènes. It was not thus. Already Arnéens, which had wanted to start the Attic on the side of north and to detach Œnoé from it, had been pushed back by Mélanthos. This last was proclaimed king by the Athenians in the place of Thymcetes (1), which had not dared to take up the challenge that Xanthos, king of Arnéens, had carried to him. When Doriens, led by kings d' Argos and of Corinth, Althsemenes and Aletes, were thrown in their turn on the possessions of the Athenians, the latter which had seen however enlarging their rows per so many fugitive come from all the corners from Greece, defended themselves only with sorrow against these new invaders. An oracle had promised the victory in Doriens, if they did not make any evil with king d' Athènes. The remainder is known. Codrus (2), wire of Mélanthos, was devoted for his and saved its country. The legendary history of the Attic knows more than one example of a similar devotion. There is no serious reason to doubt dead Codrus and the effect which it produced on Doriens. The races of the primitive world were nuns until the superstition. One was made the war for the image of a divinity; one dropped the weapons to the appearance of an eclipse. Still, of the time of the war of Pélo- ponèse, the Athenians let themselves guide in their policy by old oracles. Doriens gave up the idea to conquer the Attic, after having detached Mégare of it and the Isthmus. Perhaps they was also says that the not very fertile ground of the Attic was not worth the sorrow to be disputed by long and bloody fight. At all events, if success remained with the Athenians, that could be only one negative success, which should not have brought back any kind of glory to them. If it had been differently, the chroniclers of the Attic would not have failed to maintain us.

(1) Thymœtes etc.it the last king of the dynasty of Théséides, and Mélanthos, the first of that of Nélides.

2) In Albanian ofpe does not mean hill; but the word và should be also considered. Solid, valorous Fe. Cpr. “ApTê^c/f Ka.fpea.Tis.

The independence of the canton had been saved, thanks to the contest of many exiled which had taken refuge there, and whose majority will have belonged to the Ionian race. But the country was out of state to nourish such an addition of inhabitants; the newcomers had soon to think of seeking a new fatherland. Pélasges, to which one had, perhaps because of their different nationality, assigned a ground with share, emptied the places the first and were established in Chalcidique. They were followed of Cad- méens and desMinyens of Iolkos and Orchomenos, which went to occupy Lemnos, Imbros and Samothrace. Egialéens seized the majority of Cyclades and were fixed first of all at Naxos. But the most important group of émi- grants was that which, led by the son of king Codrus, Nélée, founded the large Millet colony. Later, one of the young brothers of Nélée, Androklos, with the head of another troop, tore off the town of Ephèse to the natives. Of course, the movement which carried initially the old tribes of Homeric Greece towards the Aegean Sea and the coast of Asia-Minor, did not stop there. Of all the parts of the country, which later will be called Hellade, valid youth, sprang with the easy conquest of the islands and the occupied territories by Cariens, lesMy- his, Lélèges and the Lydians. The descendants of Doriens conquerors went themselves on the traces of the Achaens and the Ionian ones; they colonized the point S. - O. of Anatolia; they occupied Rhodos and they took foot on Crete.

§ 7. - First appearance authenticates the Ionian ones in the history. - Judgement of Hérodote.

It is in the middle of this great movement which pushed the former populations of Greece towards Asian trimmings that the name of Ionian makes its first authentic appearance in the history. Those which left Athens to found Milet, known as Hérodote (1), having carried in Asia the crowned flame of the hearth of Pry-

(1) Hérodote, I, 146.

tanned praised themselves, without reason, to be purest, noblest of the Ionian ones, since they brought with them good number of Abantes which do not have anything commun run with the Ionian name, and of Minyens d' Orchomenos, and Cadméens, and Dryopes, and Péoniens, and Molosses, and Pélasges of Arcadie and even of Doriens d' Epidaure, finally of other Greeks still of various origin. However, once installed in theMinor one, these emigrants admire only twelve cities in their confederation in remembering the twelve cities which the men of their race had occupied in the Peloponnese before being attacked, overcome and expelled by the Achaens. It follows of this fact affirmed by Hérodote, that the inhabitants of the northern coast of the Peloponnese bore the name of Ionian apart from that of Egialéens, which is given to them by Homère like with the majority of the Greeks established along the coasts of the whole peninsula.

If Hérodote makes fun of the pride of Ionian of Ionie believing itself resulting from a blood nobler than the other Greeks belonging to their race, it does not appear to hold in higher regard the Ionian ones of Europe (1). Speaking about resistance that the twelve cities of the confederation to the companies of Cyrus tried to make, he declares that all the Hellenic people were weak then, and that weakest and unimportant of all (\ o-yove \ has. - yJaToi) was undoubtedly those of the Ionian race. To the only exception of Athens, he says, they did not have any important city. Also, he adds, the Athenians and the others

(1) Hérodote, I, 143.

I

Ionian of Europe do not like they to be indicated thus and do not want they to be called Ioniens. The majority of them appear still today to redden of this name.

That the Athenians arrived, after having overcome Persians, at the apogee of their power, were not quite proud of their Ionian origin, that does not have anything astonishing. The Ionian confederation of Asia-Minor had undergone the yoke of Achéménides; Millet had been destroyed; and if the situation of Ionian of Anatolia and the Aegean Sea had finally improved, it was grace especially to the intervention of the Athenian, main fleets then in these trimmings and threatening all the coasts of the empire of the large king. A time ago however, where Milet was the most powerful city of Hellènes. It had founded between 800 and 550,75 to 80 colonies, whose majority were located around the Euxin Bridge (1) and even on the edges of Méotide. The two seas could be regarded as lakes milésiens. It is auxMilésiens which Psam- metic addressed, when he wanted to ensure his domination in Egypt; it was of Milésiens which established with the permission of the Pharaon a station and a foreign post with Naucratis; they were the Ionian ones which kept the Syrian border close to Pélusium, of Ionian which accompanied it in its campaigns against the Philistines and the Nubians. Their names are read still today on the pedestal of the statues of Ramsès with Abou Simbel <2).

(1) Since Parium and Cyzicus until Sinope and Trapezonte; from there in Dioskourias, in Tomi and Odessus.

(2) Duncker, III, p. 495.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:15 am

bravery of the race was proverbial. They overcame the Scythians, known as Athénée by speaking about them (1) and they succumbed only to the luxury generated by richnesses accumulated in their cities. - Let us add that those of Millet found worthy followers in the sailors of Samos, who reached Tartessos, and in Phocéens, Ioniens also, which founded Marseilles, while thus carrying the prestige of the Hellenic name in the most Western areas of the Mediterranean.

Hérodote with the air to be unaware of all this glorious last. In its work it makes use of the Ionian dialect; it goes on the traces of the logographes that incontestably it exceeds; it does not have enough praises for the part played by Athens in the medic wars, and it by no means dissimulates its sympathies to the government of Périclès. But in the case which occupies us, Hérodote appears to have obeyed so that we could call the parochialism; perhaps it remembered too much that it was native of Halicarnasse, and it shared the jealousy of its fellow-citizens with regard to their neighbors of Ionie whose early glare had thrown in the shade during long series of generations and Eoliens of north and Doriens of midday.

But like the illustration of Ionian of Asia-Semi neure dates at most only from the beginning of the VHP century, it could not explain the vanity which from this name the emigrants drew who perhaps left Athens 150 years to be established before in Milet. It

(1) Athenaeum, XII, 20.

name was undoubtedly already very-old at that time, since it was carried by the inhabitants of the twelve confederated cities located along the edge of the gulf of Corinth. But it was not yet, according to any appearance at least, very-famous, or, it had for a long time ceased being it, and the defeat that the Achaens had inflicted to them, defeat who had obliged them to seek their refuge in the Attic, had not been able to contribute to raise the glare of it.

However Ionian and Achaens did not regard themselves then as two deeply distinct tribes. The hard need alone had put iron in hand to the exiled Achaens of Argolide and Laconie, and had pushed them to throw itself on the inhabitants of Egialée of north. No hatred, no competition divided the two populations, since Homère whose language, the religious and political traditions have a very Ionian seal, puts everywhere, as we already pointed out, heroes of Mycènes and Phthie in first line, giving to Ulysses and Nestor only the price of wisdom and the eloquence. Perhaps by equalizing the merits, the large poet endeavoured it to satisfy the need for glory of which all the children of Greece were ignited. The aèdes of Smyrna and Tap-holes undoubtedly sang at the court of kings de Mitylène and Lesbos the praises of Agamemnon, Diomède, of Achilles, as they glorifiaient in Milet and Ephèse the important facts, and celebrated the adventures, of kings d' Ithaque and Pylos. Also, in the genealogy intended to give an account of the origins of the Greek people, which appear to have been made up in IXe and VIIIe centuries by the priests of Delphes, Ion and Achœus they are recommended like two brothers, wire of the same father, mysterious Xuthus.

§ 8. - Genealogy of the Greek tribes. - Wind, Doriens, Ionian. - Xuthus and Achœus.

I should not dissimulate however, only it reigns on the question which occupies us, at good number of criticisms of Beyond the rhine, an opinion quite different from ours. When in VIIIe century one started to consider Helene, wire of Deucalion, like the grandfather of all the children of Greece, one shared the latter in three distinct groups which one attached to three wire of Helene: Aeolus, Dorus, Xuthus. Under the name of Aeolus one included/understood obviously the great mass of the Greek people, of the medium of which the tribes of Ionian and C riens had risen, while following one and the other an independent and original way. - And indeed one could see on the Western coast of Asia-Minor the three groups close from/to each other with their manners, their institutions and their dialects different. One tested the need to apply this so clear division to the motherland. Only there, the crowd of the Greeks which had remained faithful to the primitive life, was of much most considerable. They were called \ ÎÔaoj, i.e. variegated, because they represented a living mixture of populations of the cantons, and speaking about the dialects, various. Then came Doriens which, the weapons with the hand, had been conquered a considerable territory in the middle of their compatriots. One would now expect to see appearing Ion beside his brothers Aeolus and Dorus. But one still remembered, say Misters Duncker and Pott, that the Ionian ones had been driven out of part of the northern coast of the Peloponnese by C riens; that this coast was then occupied by the expelled Achaens of Argos of their grounds, them also, by C riens. One would thus have given to these two exiled tribes ground which they had occupied, a common father: Xuthus the outlaw of the verb ^K^éa^ to thus mark the lower position of the third group compared to the two others. If specious that is to say this conjecture, I do not think that it can support the examination.

We would like to know under the terms of which grammatical rules Greek in particular, or grammar compared in general, the form fyvSôf could be regarded as being equivalent to Barrât. It is true that one finds 64<3ô$ flaring of the sun, black; but afô&> has a neutral direction and aSséa> is transitive. One must add, that never the inhabitants of the Attic and Achaïe had not accepted the genealogy suggested by the college of the priests of Delphes, if they had been able there to discover an abusive direction for their race. 'Eev' àli means bursting of color (e.g. fytàcà) or: sharp of movement, untied (e.g. goi/Oneself). If the priests in question had attached a significance personally there very other, there they would have allowed a mischievousness quite innocent, and quite useless, since it would have been included/understood of nobody. By supposing it understood, one could support that it did not carry. The Ionian ones, after all, were not expelled, since they always occupied the important canton of the Attic. Ionian of the Achaïe only ones appear to have emigrated in mass. Moreover, by this time of agitations and migrations, everyone had been expelled a little, to see even Doriens, and good number of Wind, since by the name of Eolide, one indicated one of the great Greek confederations of Anatolia. Finally the Achaens had behaved themselves as enemies of Ionian, when pushed by Doriens, they had been thrown on their former friends and close to Egialée.

It appears obvious to us, that day when Helene was recognized like ancestor of all the Greeks, the rows between its alleged sons were distributed according to the importance of the occupied territory by the various races. Eole was famous the elder one, because it represented the bottom even nation, which Doriens and Ioniens had left while pointing out itself by qualities, special virtues, by particular idioms. There undoubtedly existed a legend according to which the Wind ones went down from Eole, god of the winds and father of kings d' Iolkos and Corinth. But this legend is of a relatively recent origin and does not present any serious direction. Many Greeks being sailors, undoubtedly needed the favour of this god; but undoubtedly, neither Thessaliens, neither Phoci- diens, neither the Wind ones, nor especially Arcadiens could justify by this means their relationship with the god. - The Wind ones (aiÔAoi, with-o^heis) covering most of the territory of Greece, Doriens came in second line. They occupied in the middle of this crowd of former Greeks which, to be itself often moved, does not have

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 5:16 am

are worth much not changed, the most important place. They were the Masters of the Peloponnese, Mégare, Doride; they had colonized Rhodos, the southernmost point of Anatolia, part of Crete. Let us not forget that the priests of Delphes appear to have been of origin dorienne. Shouldn't the latter have granted at least the third rank to their rivals, the Ionian ones? Weren't those their elder in the history, since they had lived before the irruption of Doriens all Egialée, i.e. probably all the turn of the Peloponnese? It appears that the college of the priests of Delphes considered the things differently. In its eyes, Doriens were the militia of Héraclides; they went back to Hercules. It is under the terms of this origin that they asserted the possession of all the heritage of Pélopides. Hadn't Eurysthée frustrated Hercules of its inheritance and the throne? However, in the legendary chronology of the Greeks, Hercules was former to Thésée. The history of At tick provided itself of it the proof. She told, that Héraclides pushed back of everywhere had come to sit down in Athens on the furnace bridge of Pity, that Thésée covered them its protection and beat Eurysthée which, to the head of an army, had come from there to claim the extradition. Héraclides were fixed at Trikorythos close to Marathon, which was assigned to them like residence (1).

(1) II is true that later, the Athenians found average to claim primogeniture for their grandfather. With the eyes of the poet Euripide (Ion, v. 1578) Xuthus is wire of Eole. It has the Athenian one Digs two wire: Dorus and Achéus. But it had had previously Ion of Apollo, and Xuthus, consequently, was only the nominal father (x.o.t êviuMsiv). One sees that for Euripide, like

Thus, Thésée was posterior in Hercules, as Ion was it in Dorus. Ion undoubtedly started to spread about year 600 a sharp glare on the Hellenic name; it occupied the best share of the Western coast of Asia Mineure and it reigned on Cyclades. But after all, in the motherland, Ion had one canton: the Attic. Will it be said that among the Achaens established on the septentrional coast of the Peloponnese there had remained a great number of Ionian, that their language and their worships ended up taking the top? and what it is there the reason for which one gave Achœus like younger brother to Ion? The thing is not impossible. It should be considered however that the name of the Achaens was then most glorious of Greece; that Homère had just illustrated it by the immortal poems which were sung then in all the cities with great religious solemnities; that Lycurgue passed to have prescribed the recitation with Sparte of it. - Homère itself was Ionien; one was not unaware of it among the descendants of Dorus; but he had lived Smyrna which had not always belonged to the Ionian ones; the family of Homère had had relations with the old cities rested by the Achaens (Cymé). They are the dynasties of the latter, that of Atrides with Mycènes, that of Achilles in Phthiotide, which it had highlighted especially in his Iliade; it had placed Ulysses and the Nestor only at the second rank. Glory that the Ionian ones had just acquired by their poetries seemed inseparable from the antique warlike glory, whose Greece had covered itself with the head office of Troy. However towards brought together year 800, Ionian and Achaens occupied in Greece itself only one not very considerable territory, not very fertile, and because of that, little considered and not very required. It was felt extremely well that it was not necessary to establish four Hellenic races, and thus one was able to make one group of Ionian and the Achaens, and that one gave them Xuthus for common grandfather.

for everyone, the wind phase is oldest. Later one starts to disentangle three distinct elements there: Achaens, Doriens and Ioniens. It is probable that, if the majority of the college of Delphes had been made up of Ionian, it is a legend similar to that of Euripide, and not the other, which would have triumphed.

This is Xuthus a purely imaginary character, invented purposely to render comprehensible that the colonial, naval and poetic illustration of Ionian, that any soldier especially of the Achaens, was however attached to primitive continental Greece, of which after Epire, Thessalie, was perhaps the most ancient center? It is probable. But if one should not see in the name of Xuthus an insult for the populations which one reduced from the man who carried it, it would be imprudent to perhaps take it as a compliment at their address. Indeed, one of the directions of fyvSôs appears to be: nimble, untied, fine; it would apply perfectly to these Ionian which had just spread a so sharp glare on the Hellenic name. However, after look athaving looked at there more closely, we prefer a simpler explanation. It would be said that in the famous genealogy that we examine, the Greeks except for Doriens, would have been classified according to the colors, either of the hair, or of the dye. Hellènes for us, it is a point which we tried to draw up higher, are the men with the clear glance, the rosy dye, the fair hair. There were however varied nuances; they all were joined together in this old funds of the majority of the Greek people which one designated by the name of Wind: variegated, the multicoloured ones, populations of appearances and varied paces. Xuthus finally, like Helene, Dorus, came from north, Thessalie. The men of the north which it ordered, had more than the men of midday, the coloured dye and blond hair. The gods of the Greeks were made with their image. Apollo is called Ça.tà'<> {. As the Athenians regarded Apollon as their ancestor (TrarpSos), since he is regarded by them as the true father of Ion, Preller thought (1), that Xuthus was Apollon himself, God with blond hair, tranformé as hero (2). The priests of Delphes had found with old natural countries, with the inhabitants of Peloponnese, a darker dye, hair blacker than with the men of their own nation; - they were not annoyed to emphasize this difference in the family tree which they tried to draw up. Opposite the less energetic populations of primitive Greece, opposite Eastern more softened still and marked hedge of a burning sun, Hellènes felt all the men of another race, a higher and stronger race, and as linked by the bonds of a true fraternity.

(1) Preller, II, 101.

(2) Eurip., /on, v. 887, 'HxS “(À.oi 'X.pvtrS

§ 9. - Greeks and Ionian. - The Old ones
and Young people.

The priests of Delphes had endeavoured at the same time to return account to their way of the great national institutions of Greece. As the amphictyonies had been as of the first times of the religious federations embracing good number of members of the Greek big family, they gave to Helene, wire of Deucalion, Amphictyon for brother. As following these meetings determined by religious mobiles had been born the plays from Olympie, a girl of Deucalion, Protogénie, was to have had of Jupiter a son Aethlios, the fighter, the athlete. However, we already pointed out that with one second girl of Deucalion, Pandore, Jupiter had had according to large Eées, another son, this Graekos “which does not bend in the middle of the engagements. ” We know already that formerly the people of Dodone and the surroundings had been called Tpaoco/', and that it was the name there, by which Latin and Italiotes constantly indicated Hellènes. This name of Greeks, as it started to be spread in the countries of the west, disappeared with saying of Aristote in the motherland. We concluded from the high antiquity of this name, that Greeks and people of Italy knew each other a long time before the history did not mention report/ratio that they had together. The Greek authors did not speak about the Romans before the end of IVe century. The Romans on the contrary were subject to the influence of their famous devan

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

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