Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

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Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:33 am

Greece before the Greeks
Louis Benloew
Paris 1877

[Translated from French by "bablefish". English copies do not exist (?)]


PREFACE

Since long years I had believed to recognize in a certain number of names geographical and historical, or prehistoric, old Greece of the indices of a primitive population former to Hellènes. As I traversed one day the vocabulary, very-incomplete besides, that Xylander added to its Albanian grammar, my presumptions acquired, in my eyes, a certain degree of probability, not to say more. Albanian seemed to give an account of some proper names, otherwise unexplainable, such as Malée, Pylos, Andanie, Olympe. Unfortunately to light me more, I had apart from Xylander only the treaty on Albanian of Bopp, my famous Master, of which it had made me present in 1859 when I had gone voira it Berlin for the last time. This treaty could be to me of no immediate utility, but it ap-

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my attention peeled on the work conscientious, masterly, of Hahn, where one finds joined together all that one knows of passed and of the present of the Albanians, plus complete a enough grammar for certain parts, and a lexicon made with good more care than that of Xylander. I live the work of Hahn for the first time in 1873 with the library of Cassel (Hesse Electorale). I made it come since, as well as the beautiful work of Mr. Miklosich on Albanian, which all the spirit of sagacious criticism chaired which honours our century.

I realized soon that the track that I believed to have discovered, had been already followed by others that me. Fortunately it had not been followed well far. One had left me seek and find. I be in a hurry to make known with the Masters of science some of the results obtained. Mr. Egger, that I maintained the first it, was of the opinion that it could be useful to subject them to the judgement of the Academy. He did not refuse me his councils, at the same time as he opened to me the treasures of his rich person library. Invaluable indications were provided to me, moreover, by Misters de Longpérier, Derembourg and Ernest Desjardins.

The two readings which I was authorized to make with the Academy, drew the attention of the albano- philes of Italy. A great lady whose name is known honourably in our literary records, and whose Albanian origin estdes more famous, denies made the honor enter in correspondence with to lend me, me the lights of its scholarship, and to announce me work of its compatriots domiciled in Italy on the matters which interested me. - The Councils, information, publications philological and historical, booklets of any kind, Dora of Istria me forwarded them with a rare kindness and the most delicate satisfying. I pus to take note thus grammatologia alba- nese of Demetrio Camarda, grammar of Split, the writings of Vincenzo Dorsa. I test the need to publicly thank here gracious Principessa and his collaborator scientists for their so pleasant contest and if hastened. By traversing the following pages, they will realize, I hope, that I read their works and that I knew your to make profitable.

By beginning my work, I believed to simply treat a question of linguistics and ethnography; I am to have touched with one

VI

alive question, palpitating even, with a question of nationality. And what a nationality! Oldest of our continent with that of the Basques. Europe by its large diplomatic bases seems to want to constitute today like a permanent court of international justice. It is the moment for disinherited history, for forgotten of the European big family, to make known their objections, to put forward their titles with the interest, the gratitude even of the civilized people. In spite of the heroic resistance of Skanderbeg, the crescent made a deep breach in the Albanian clans. A great number of them are Musulmans today. However admire the force of the blood which triumphs even over religious hatreds and sign the tolerance with all the members of the same race:

You link Chrétiens and Mahométans, claim freedom

Then, when the Othoman is outside, made your Easter or celebrate it

|baïram (1).

These Albanian poor which spread purest of their blood for the stamping from Greece and which would have agreed of large heart to

(1) Has Dora gli Albanesi, last song p. 121-124, Livorno 1870.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:35 am

to be Greek, if it had been allowed to them! That them at least the hope is left! All that in their country has heart and intelligence pushes back the Turkish conqueror.

Dijon, on March 19, 1877.

Louis BENLŒW.

FOREWORD

N is proven today that at one unmemorable time, Greece was not inhabited by the Greeks: when the latter penetrated in the country which they were to illustrate of their name, this country was not any more one desert. With which race thus did belong its first inhabitants? Customs did not found what we would call a state, they did not even form a nation, they did not have literature and they did not know to establish durable traditions; finally, no document, no inscription returns testimony of their last existence. There are however many traces, on the ground of Greece, of a civilization former to that of the Greeks. Flints, tools and axes of a very primitive form that one finds there in great number, prove that Greece, like all the countries of Europe, apassépar the age of the stone and bronze. It is necessary to add the walls, cyclopean constructions which meet everywhere, from Epire in theMinor one.

Account should be held finally place names, mountains, rivers, legendary characters who are not explained by Greek etymologies, and which seem to belong to the vocabulary of a foreign idiom. Does this idiom exist still today? Was it preserved rather intact, to be able to be useful to us in our research? It is there a question which we will have to elucidate.

Mr. Guillaume de Humboldt after having studied the Basque language on which he wrote, in the fourth volume of Mithridate, of the remarkable pages, had started to examine the proper names that the old geography of Spain presents. The majority of these names had Latin or Latinized forms; the Roman conquest had put its print on the whole country. There was undoubtedly in midday of the colonies phenicians, Carthaginians, which had preserved their Semitic denominations. Rather many cities, whose names finish in briga, showed the invasion of the Celts. N remained however a considerable group of cities, whose names were not Latin, and who however resisted the analysis of the Arabists and the celtisles. They was apparently names of places having belonged to Ibères, inhabitants primitive of Spain. The Basque returned account without effort of their significance first. Humboldt believed capacity to conclude from it that the Basques were precisely the descendants of old Ibères; that, withdrawn in about inaccessible mountains,

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they had known to preserve their independence and the language of their ancestors.

The attentive study of the high Greek antiquity, of the names of its older cities, mountains and populations, of some of its divinities, seems to lead to a similar result. Phéniciens established many stations on the Aegean Islands, and they tried to colonize some points of the dry land. By deducting the few Semitic proper names that the geography of the Hellade antique presents to us, we remain opposite a greater number whose origin is undoubtedly not Greek, and must go back to a few centuries higher than the Hellenic traditions most remote. Several of these cities, one says to us expressly that they belonged to Pélasges, Lélcges, in Caucones, in Dardaniens. Only one language until now appeared able to give an account of the names of these places: it is Albanian. Thus the author of the work which one will read was brought to support the thesis which the Albanians nowadays are the descendants of the populations which covered, before the arrival of the Greeks, the ground of the countries which extend since the Adriatic Sea until Halys.

H had to start by subjecting to an attentive examination the opinions of the Greek writers, who for the majority were not unaware of that their compatriots had not always occupied the country to which they gave them

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:36 am

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name; that the latter had not always formed like a vast national federation, and that they bore the names of Greeks successively, Pélasges, Achaens, before adopting that of Hellènes. Before entering the content of the question which worries us, we will have to fix the respective value of these different names. The direction of that which passes for oldest from all, Pélasges, is particularly litigious, and he admits several explanations. Are Pélasges Greeks thoroughbred? Not, Hérodote answers. Yes, Auguste Bœckh answers. One will find in the following pages the opinion in which we believed to have to stop us ourself.

GREECE BEFORE THE GREEKS

DELIVER FIRST

PELASGES & LELÈGES

§ 1. - Greeks, V

The memories of the history go up higher at the nations of Western Europe, than one is usually not been willing to believe it. The name of the Greeks seems to us to provide an obvious proof of it. This name was transmitted to us by the Romans, who made it adopt by all the people, except by that they indicated thus, and which itself is called Hellènes. This name, however, the Romans did not invent it. It was carried by the inhabitants of the town of Dodone and the close cantons in Epire, at one time undoubtedly extremely old and which it is necessary to place beyond the invasion of Doriens and perhaps,

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Trojan War. Italiotes of these moved back times especially had relationship with the part of Greece from which they were brought closer, and from which the strait of Otranto alone separated them.

On another side, the inhabitants of Dodone did not cease remaining in relation to their compatriots of Pélopo- nèse and Hellade itself. If the Romans had known the Greeks only after the foundation of large Amphictyonies and the regular establishment of the Olympic Games, they would undoubtedly have applied the name to them, by which consequently the Greeks indicated themselves; they would have called them Hellènes. One can push this reasoning; one can say that before with the anlOOO, there existed in Greece already famous and rather powerful dynasties, like those of the EP lopides, of Eacides, and that, placed at the head of a great confederation, they had reigned in the Aegean Sea, makes the war on the coasts of Anatolia and conquered Troy. These important facts were sung by the aèdes in all the cities of the motherland; they were not to be been unaware of in Epire. The men who had achieved them were called neither Greek, nor Hellènes either. Homère knows them only under the name of Aa.va.oi, Ax “io< Danaens, Achaens. Cannot about it one conclude that the name of Greeks was fixed in the memory of Italiotes - one should speak about the Romans, who still did not exist in a time, when no news of the great changes which have occurred in the East of Greece had not reached them yet, and where they were unaware of until the name of the Homeric songs?

At all events, the name of the Greeks is very old;

it is Aristote (L) which ensures us that it had been carried formerly by the population of Dodone and the residents of the Aitch loos. Before him Hésiode (2) in worms well-known had sung that Pandore, girl of Deucalion ancestor of the Greek nation, had given birth to intrepid Grœcus with the combat, Hftex&ç/juiit. The direction of this proper name appears to us clearer. Though one lately brought it closer to IWi (And. Magn.) and translated: the savage ones, the independent ones, we think that it is necessary to understand by ffa/xo/the old ones. T^cùnes were called also the wind inhabitants of Parion according to Stephan de Byzance; it is the name which Sophocle and Alcrnan had given to the mothers of Hellènes: Yçttïa. finally (old city) was the name of a place located in laBéotie on the coast between Oropos and TANAGRA. The tradition of the Genesis and that of the Greeks are of agreement to make of Dodone (in hébr. Dodanim) the oldest center of Hellenic civilization. It is curious, that one meets in the area where this city was located, all the names by which the Greeks indicated themselves since their arrival in the country where they were to remain fixed. We have just spoken about that from Tpctinoi. Homère names (Iliade XVI, 234) venerated Jupiter with Dodone Jupiter peeled gic - and we will see presently that Pélasges were often regarded as the ancestors of the Greeks. As for the name of the Achaens, if widespread later, we still find it in Ithaque (Odyss. I, 394), but not in Epire. On the other hand, this country is crossed by

(1) Météorol. I, 14.

(2) Fragm, 29, Gcettlinfç edict.

Heuves of Achelous and Achéron; and the first syllable of these names, is the same one as that which the name of the Achaens contains. The direction of this last it bordering of a root “t^i Latin aq-ua? It is true that X “icfdans the dialect of Lacédémone meant creditable, and that the linguists attach this word as well as the name of the Achaens to the kha root, (share. was. not. khjèya or khjàya}, to praise and does not separate 'aya^ôs from it (1). The question would be to decide if Lacédémoniens of the lower classes would not have allotted lesensde good Cx, cu°n with the word “Axa. - bone, precisely because this name pointed out the good old day to them, last for them for a long time; factitious etymology, which would point out for example that Ajax provides of its own name in Sophocle, and so much of others.

Finally the name of Hellade and Hellènes meets in the kids trimmings with those of the Greeks, of Pélas- ges and perhaps Achaens. It is this que.nous will prove in the following chapter.

§ 2. - Of Hellènes.

As soon as the Greeks had the feeling of their nationality, they were called Hellènes. This name appears inseparable from great solemnities of Olympie and about ascending exerted on the spirits, college speaks about the priests of Delphes; but he becomes general only at the beginning and east adopts universally only at the end of VIIe century. For

, 1) Benfey. Wurzellexicon. II. p. 64.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:37 am

Homère, Hellènes form yet only one canton of Thessalie placed under the sceptre of Achilles. When the poet speaks about the Greeks brought together under the walls of Troy, it names them Achaens, Danaens. Strabon notices already according to Thucydide, that Homère does not know barbarians themselves, precisely because for him the Greeks are not yet of Hellènes. It mentions admittedly Cariens getf j8 “there 4o<w “I, but they are not barbarians of which it thinks; he wants to say only that the Carien idiom is for Greeks not very understandable.

Let us examine the way followed by the names of 'em< “and 'emw before they were essential on whole Greece. Let us start with the observation that the passage of Iliade where it is question of Ua.vi \ \ m “(all brought together Greeks) was regarded as apocryphal book déjàdansl' antiquity (d). In the Odyssey we meet the expression **} 'F, hhâ. S'& r.xl fj.i<; W “Af^of. Hellade indicates here obviously a territory of a certain extent (2). It is in Hésiode that it is necessary to seek the oldest mention of Helene and her sons:

Re x.eû AioÂos (

This Helene passed for the son of Deucalion which according to an antique tradition had founded the Jupiter sanctuary with Dodone, served by priests who bore the key name cF>Aeî or “Zewoi (3). Dodone itself was located in a region called Hellopia or Alas. When Thessaliens left Epire to invade Hémonie, on which they imposed their name, they transplanted in their new fatherland the names of Deuca- lion and Alas. The last of both will be attached from now on to the septentrional part of Phthiotide occupied by Thessaliens.

11) Hiade, II. v. 530.

(2) Odyss., 1, v. 344: IV. v 726. ;

fty Cpr. words \ a.t, “XW”, 'LAWB.

It is-there, said one, which Deucalion had reigned; later, one made the king of Thessalie of it whole. The legendary account of the flood of Dodone, was applied in the same way to the boxed small valleys of this lately occupied country. One supported that Deucalion had approached on the heights of Othrys; later, it was not any more Othrys, it was the crowned top of the Parnassus where it was claimed that its boat had stopped. It occurred about it that, non-seulement Locriens d' Oponte claimed to go down from the hero who only had escaped with the large flood, but still the noble families from Delphes, guardians of the new oracle which started to make forget that of Dodone. It is from this time that Deucalion was regarded as the grandfather of the very whole Greek race; that one sought to attach to this name the origin of all the tribes, and already towards 800, the priests of Delphes could order in Lycurgue come to consult them on the means of consolidating the new constitution of Sparte, to set up a temple with Zeus Hellanios and Athéné Hellania (1).

(1) Duncker, Geschichte of Alterthums, T. III, p. 380,556.

§ 3. - Achaens, Ax<mo (,

For the Greeks of historical times, the name of these Achaens who had guerroyé in theMinor one, and who had made the head office of Troy answered only one rather short time, that apparently of the power and the size of the house of Pélopides. It designated the Greeks of the Peloponnese, alive under the sceptre of this dynasty, as well as the inhabitants of Argos pelasgic in Thessalie, called by Homère also Myrmidons and Hellènes, and whose Achille was the famous chief (1). The inhabitants del' Argolide bore also the name of Aac&o/, of Danaos wire of Bélus and founder of Argos (2). But this name, as that of the Achaens is applied by Homère indifferently to all the confederated Greeks, because it stuck to the populations then dominating of Argos and Phthia, and to Agamemnon which ordered them. The Achaen name however appears to be more generally adopted. Homère names some in Ithaque (see higher), and in Crete (3); we suspected the existence in Epire of it; and the circumstance which they are quoted beside Hellènes, on which Achille reign according to the famous passage of Iliade, still confirms our sup-

(1) Iliade, II, v. 684.

(2) Sometimes Danaos is translated the old one, as if the word were identical to £~nvciios. Now one prefers the translation desiccated because of the arid ground of Argolide. In Albanian Danatsi wants to say Men-liked. According to Etymologicon Magnum deaths also have name Acivctoi.

(3) Odyss. XIX, v. 175.

position. Later, the name of Achaïe and the Achaens remained with the not very fertile canton which extends, in the north of the Peloponnese since Sicyon, along the gulf of Corinth; it is there that had taken refuge the part of the former Achaean population which had wanted neither to submit itself to Doriens, nor to leave the ground of the fatherland. But this name was also preserved by the old tribes of Thessalie confined in Phthiotide, established in Jolcos, Phéré, Ptéléon and Halos, which in IIIe century still had remained faithful to their primitive worships, the life and the simple armour of Homeric times (1). The name of the EP lasges only exceeded by its seniority that of the Achaens; Pélasgos, said one, had formerly reigned in Thessalie; his/her Hémon son, had given to the country his old name, Hémonie; beside Hémon, one names two others wire of Pélasgos: Acheeos and Phthios and a Larissa girl. It is seen clearly that the proper names of these people are only the symbols of the countries and the people which they indicate. The name of Pélasgiotide is also affected with the canton of Thessalie which borders the lake Bœ- béen (2). Indeed, according to an very-old tradition, before Trojan times, the inhabitants of Greece would have been called Pélasges. Euripide itself quoted by good Stra-, affirms that leaving the name of Pélasges they would have taken that of Aai' aoï. Pélasges would not have been other than Greeks only designated by one older name.

(1) Xenoph. Hellen., VI. 1. 9.

(2) Duncker, III. p. 19.

$ 4. - Is it Necessary to understand by the name of Pélasges that of the oldest Greeks?

Let us say first of all that it is the supported opinion there, since Bœckh, by the majority of the philologists of Beyond the rhine. Dupuy, a French scientist, had imagined to make come Pélasgesde the Indian Ocean; certain Herbert Marsh in his Horœ pélasgicœ, had made some simply of Thraces. If they were really Greeks, it would be necessary to assign to them like primitive fatherland Uttara- kuru of Aryàs, as with the other populations indoeuropéennes.

It is certain that the Greeks attach in the name of Pélasges the oldest memories of their history. For Homère, as we have just seen it, the principal god of Dodone is Jupiter pelasgic. Asios of Sam bone, quoted by Pausanias, said that the black cotton soil gave birth to, on the top of the mounts, Pélasgos similar to the gods, in order to give rise to the race of the human ones. In a fragment of Hésiode (1), Pélasgos is named wire of the ground and grandfather of Pélasges. Since to the eyes of the Greeks the men left the centre the ground, their mother, it should not be astonished that Pélasges are for them has \ itochih.onesynyevsrs. Eschyle in its Begging traces us the chart of a great empire pelasgic: Argosenest the center; to north it extends until Dodone, until Strymon; it is limited there by

it) Hesiod., fragm. 135. édid. (îœttling.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:39 am

populate of Perrhèbes. It is that there was really of Pélasges in Macedonia and Thrace (1). The king of this empire is Pélasgos, wire of Palaechthon (old woman ground) and descendant of Pélasgos, autochthone. Hérodote acknowledges that all the country called of its Hellas time, had borne formerly the name of Pélasgie (~le \ u.vyia.}. Thesprotes of Epire with their Dodone capital would have been of Pélasges as well as the inhabitants of the Attic and the country of Argos. Callimaque (in its Bath of Pallas) still remembers it, since he designates there the women of Ar giens by the name of Pélasgiennes (neya.jyiS' sf). For stronger reason is necessary it to see of Pélasges in lesEoliensetles Ar cadiens. The Ionian benches along the septentrional coast of the Peloponnese, would have been Pélasges themselves (2). According to Ephore, lenom of Pélasgia would have been affected formerly in the whole Peloponnese, and Strabon (3 especially sees in Pélasges a nation spread formerly in all Greece, but dominating in Thessalie etl' Arcadie. We saw indeed that in the first of these Homère countries a city called “Apy” S UeKa.fytx.av knew, and that even in relatively recent times one knew there a canton of the name of Pélasgiotide.

According to that, Pélasges would have been the Greeks themselves in one of the first phases of their civilization. One finds their name where the worships of oldest (4) were preserved, where they were maintained

(1) Bœckh, Course of Greek Antiquities, 1836.

(2) Hérodote, I, 56; VIII, 44.

(3) Strabon, p. 221.

(4) Let us quote only that of Jupiter pelasgic. who makes fall the rain, and of Déméter* which sleeps with ground” with Dodone. Let us note it

the oldest traditions, where agriculture made its first appearance, or there, where the pastoral life forever ceased reigning, as in Etolie, Acarna- denies and in particular in Arcadie. The Greeks went a long time behind their herds, following the example Aryâs of Pendshab; and of the cantons which later were famous for the fertility of their ground, such as Béotie and Eubée, show by the origin of their name, which in primitive times one had especially delivered there to the pupil of the cattle.

Also bienque quelquesphilologists have prétendufaire to come the name from Pélasges de TêA “.! > to approach, arrive (i.e. advence), or Ta^m to wander (i.e. vagrants), one agreed nowadays to see a word meaning there the old ones. There one believed to find the Greek T “has \ “, TêMos livid; Gray Toa/m, - Tta-Ka-i formerly, or Albanian T*jâ.K-ov, the old one, i.e. a member of the council of the commune. Hésychius translates the name of part of the people Macedonian N” I, a.y' wes by yéçovTSf, Ta.ha.io I, ynyeveïs. He adds Ylehtyà.ves have wS' ofyi, vaçâ. T 2, vpon oi X, ciï have 'Hveiârcti All éçovTcts x.<ti To.s

§ 5. - Don't Pélasges rather constitute a race distinct from that of the Greeks?

Up to now all is well; unfortunately a fact of an undeniable authenticity reported by Hérodote, will compromise the results obtained. Driven out by Thessaliens, Pélasges of Pélasgiotide mingled with a troop with Minjens and Cadméens, had come to take refuge in the Attic. They was skilful diggers and manufacturers; famous for many strong castles built by them (Larisses], they strengthened the Western side, the weakest side of Cécropie and they closed by the nine doors, the road which went up there. This bastion always carried because of its origin, the name of Peeled gikon. One had yielded at the same time to the emigrants a stony field located at the foot of Hymette; they could transform it into arable land and fertile. But the Attic could not nourish a long time all those to which it had offered an asylum, without counting that the harmony ceased reigning between the Athenians and Pélasges. The latter having exerted violences on the young girls and the young boys of their hosts going to draw water “with the nine sources (1)” were expelled; they embarked, were established on the Chalcidique peninsula, and founded a series of not very considerable cities there. It is there that Hérodote knew them, in Creston or close to this city (2). It points out, that they spoke the same language as Pélasges living Plakia and Skylake on Hellespont, but which they were not understood by the other Greeks. Hérodote concludes from there that Greece having been inhabited formerly very whole by of Pélasges, had been a barbarian ground; it only later, after the invasion of Doriens, that, is civilized by Hel-

sanctuary of Uéméter pelasgic with Argos and that of Junon EP lasgiqueà Jolcos (Apollo. Rhod., I, 14; III, 66). Moreover, Hérodote reports (II, v. 171) that the women of Pélasges were the pre mières^à to celebrate the thesmophories in the honor of Déméter.

(1) Hérod. VI, 137-140.

(2) The thing is not very-clear because of a passage of Thucydide (IV, 109 which seems to put Crestoniens exactly on the same line as Edones and Bisaltes. two cruel people.

lenes, they would have adopted the language of their winners. - The things obviously did not occur as Hérodote thinks it: a long time before Hellènes did not make figure in the history, it flowered in the Peloponnese, Béotie, Thessalie a poetry and even a certain Greek civilization. Then, most powerful C the riens, and most valorous of Hellènes, were too very few to be able to so quickly impose their language on the populations which they had just subjected

On another side, we cannot be done with the opinion which prevails still today on other side of the Rhine, daprès which all Pélasges whatever they were and °ù that they had lived, would have been of Greek race and origin. Bœckh granted at least, that those which built the Pélasgique bastion, were not Pélasges as well as the other inhabitants of the Attic. If the descendants of these Pélasges had spoken a Greek dialect, how to suppose that Hérodote had not included/understood them? Admittedly, a rather great difference separated the attic from the lacédémonien, and the crétoisde the Ionian one of theMinor one. However Hérodote knew all the dialects of the motherland and with the need the speech knew, with proof that, living dorienne city to him of Balicarnasse, its famous work in the néo-Ionian dialect composed. On another side, the Greek language was fixed in all its essential parts at the time of the Trojan War, as the poems of Homère prove it. Therefore, if Pélasgiotes had spoken Greek, when the invasion of Thessaliens had driven out them of their pavs, one does not see too much why they would have désappris the Greek to exchange it against a barbarian idiom.

§ 6. - Continuation of the same subject.
The Tyrrhenian ones.

Another fact reported by Hérodote comes to corroborate the doubts that we maintain about the identity of the races Greek and pelagic. LesMinyens d' Iolcos etd' Gold chomenos, as well as Cadméens, after having left the Attic which had been used to them as asylum, and having occupied the islands of Imbros, deLemnos and of Samothrace, where they found establishments and worships phenicians, were called them also, Pélasges, by the other Greeks. However, those which lived Lemnos, to draw revenge on the Athenians which had expelled them, charmed one day the women and the girls of the latter, while they in Brauron the festival of Artémis, and they celebrated made their concubines of them. The children that they had some did not condescend to interfere themselves with the legitimate children pelasgic origin; they forced those to yield the step everywhere to them, and they ended up causing a deaf hostility of abor.d, which leads to long to the massacre of the women and the children attics (hû [jLvia. êçya.}. As Hérodote tells, that these children had learned from their mothers the language attic (1), one can suppose that this language differed deeply from that of Pélasges. Also Mr. Hahn that thinks the EP

(1) Tkwaf&v Ts Tmc “PiTrmw x.tù Tpâvovs Tw”

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:40 am

lasges by fleeing chey. Sintiens, apparently first inhabitants of Lemnos, wanted to go near a congeneric population of race. However, cesPélasges of Lemnos is also called Tyrrhéniens and in And 1/5 mologicon magnum one reads sub voce 2icT” ï<fei Elmit' tàrot nfumiCov No} My-rpiah. Those which built the bastion pelasgic in Athens bore the same name according to Photius: Custom \ a.pynCbv Rb û^b tav TvfptorSv K.a.Ta.yx.ev a.^it> T “V '“xj>oTÔM=a>f ^eïyJ><. According to others, this name itself would come from scraped turn, strengthened dwelling as these people affectionnait some, and it would have given origin to the word rifont whose first direction would have been commander of turn (l>. Indeed, these Pélasgestyrrhéniens were dreaded a long time as cruel pirates who sold their prisoners like slaves. Names rippu, rvçaif, tvf' fmti one brought closer for the direction the Etruscan: Lar the Master, then the old proper name Larissa. It is the name which at least nine cities inhabited by the EP lasges carried oldest, and which one with the practice to explain using the substantive ms, tâp stone. Larissa would be consequently: cutting off, wall of stone.

One could not deny that with the eyes of the Greeks of the close connections did not link the Tyrrhenian ones and Pélasges Itaho- your. They went until calling Tyrrhéniens all the nation of the Etruscans. Ottfried Muller thought that the latter were originating in Tyrrha, city of the Lydie, because Hérodote had made emigrate in Etrurie one

Tvfiewef êi' fHT*/Wto rav Jvppnvav Twc $mita/neù Â

part of the Lydians under the control of their king Tyrrhénos. But, unfortunately, the town of Tyrrha was not located on the sea, and however the Tyrrhenian ones were. .marins and pirates. One also spoke in the Lydie about Torrhebos, wire of Attys. But Xanthos which wrote with such an amount of authority on the Lydians, its compatriots, does not admit these adventurous assertions. Two things however appear undeniable: the names of a great number of cities of Large Greece and Sicily on a side and Albania of the other are about identical (1); then the words Tyrrhenian, Tyrant, are very-known, very-widespread in Albania. Alexandre of Floret regarded as Tyrrhéniens Pélasges de Fleuron (2), and still today it exists in the Albania two cities, called Tyrannia or Tyranna, largest located between Duraxzo and Alessio, the other in the vicinity of Kroja (3). Finally to finish some with this particularly obscure part of our research, let us recall that southernmost Albania is called still today ~Tos-x.epice., in dialect guégeois losnena. The relationship of this word with the Latin words, fuscws, tuscia and modern Toscana appears manifest.

(1) Hahn. Albanische Studien, p. 33l).
i2) Schol. in Iliad. II, v. 233.
/3i Hahn. ibid. 233.

§ 7. - Continuation: Pélasges, Tyrrhenian, Lyciens, Sicilians. Lélèges, Tuscan, Darted

niens.

Tyrrhenian and Pélasges are recognized with the turns and the citadels that they built. Let us not separate from them these bands from Lyciens which rented their arms to surround the towns of strong walls; they were called '.vn^a-ref. X “p “> “wTep “. Last nines of these Lyciens passed to have built the cyclopean walls of Tirynthe. 11 is to be noticed that until our days the Albanians provide to whole Greece wandering masons, who preserved appear-it, the primitive method of construction cyclo péenne (1). It is here that the great question arises for the first time. These Albanians be-they not descendants of the old Tyrrhenian and pelagic populations which covered old Greece of the their rissesetde their turns (rîifureif), which appear initially in Acarnanie and which are called Sicules by Pau sanias (2)? According to Pline and Ptolémée, there was of Siciliotes (I “wm “T “H) as well in Illyrie as in Italy (3).

Let us acknowledge that Pélasges from which we come to speak lastly and of which Tyrrhéniens, Lyciens and Sicules

(1) This method consists in establishing two series of flagstones, between which one poses to éjUT^exToir it. V. Hahn, p. 234.

(2) Pausanias, I, 2, § 28.

(3) Dieffenbach, Europœœ Origins, p. 94-95, then 118-120. The name of Sicani, Siculi points out the Albanian verb: ffintiy, I watch for, I explore.

perhaps did not form that particular tribes do not present the same character as the Greeks of the motherland, though the latter were affublés sometimes, them also, of the name of Pélasges. Besides one announces of them on Ionian islands, such as Lesbos, Chios, Samos, in Eubée, Crete. It is there that the place the Odyssey '!). 11 has there better. Since the edges of Kaïkos to the mouth of Kaystre, there was a series of establishments pélasgiq " ues; there was a Larissa very close to Ilion, and nque Homère m step to arrange these Pélasges among the enemies of the Greeks and the allies of Troïens (2). It would be possible that the worms which milked in these Pélasges and which belong to the catalogue, as well as the worms of the Odyssey referred to above, had been later inserted in the text. It is not a reason to support, as one did, than Pélasges of Asia-Minor are the descendants of those which one day had taken refuge in the Attic. Why Pélasges have-they which not been able to be established on the Aegean Islands and in Anatolia before the invasion of Thessaliens and Doriens? Weren't there also along the same coast the small towns of Lélèges, which one saw the tombs still later and the turrets in ruins (M*.ejsïa) I And nothing however prove, that these Lélèges that one sees thus that Pélasges, widespread in whole Greece, emigrated of the continent of Europe to fix itself in Asia Mineure. Let us add that we find another little

(1) Odyssey, I, v. 177.

(2) Iliade, II. v. iO.

plade ancient, which disappears early: Caucons established at the same time in Bitthynie, on the border of Paphlagonie, and in Elides along an affluent of Teuthéas, and which carried, him also, the name of Caucon (I). Thus we meet the name of famous Dardaniens of Troade, with one will très-gra ide distance from Asia-Minor, in a tribe of Illyrie. Dardanus, according to the legend, wire of Jupiter and Elec- will tra, would have left Arcadie, according to the ones, Crete according to the others, would have been fixed initially in the island of Its mothrace, and later in Mysie, where it would have founded Dardania (2).

§ 8. - The solution of the problem.

It has resulted from all that precedes, that there was for one unmemorable time a population calls Pélas- ges by the Greeks, established with them on the same ground, and which was more or less foreign for them. Pélasges whose existence goes back to the die of Troiens times, are not less in one good number of passages of the authors old, identified, or about, with the Greeks them

(1) The name of Caucons can be close to the Albanian words Ki<fi) c£, hull, carapace, threw, cranium Caucons would be Tètes Dures.

(2) Hahn makes derive Dardaniens from fcitâg. pear, and it quotes the names of other people, drawing their origin from the name of a tree; witnesses Mysiens of - toffô*- '£ '' “. the hornbeam, etc We will add Dryopes and Asci-burg, Asc-anius, of the anc. garlic. askr ash. 11 has there still today dins Albania a village of the name of F) arde, the pear.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:40 am

same. How to explain this apparent contradiction? We will propose a solution, who, if we are not mistaken, will not have only the very natural one:

The great migration of the Greeks towards the Occident, was done neither in only one day, nor, so to speak, of only one thorough. It was prolonged undoubtedly, through a series of generations; it could take place sometimes by the invasion of whole hordes, sometimes by a slow infiltration in countries occupied already by other tribes. It is known that the Greeks of Dodone were surrounded from time immemorial of cruel tribes; such were Chaones, Athamanes, Sylliones, Cassiopiens and others. As for Acarnaneset in Etoliens, they appear, of the consent of the Greeks themselves, a blood extremely mixed (1). No doubt indeed that the newcomers are not often in many comparable place the antique population of the country. Probably this one hardly resisted to them, as later we see Sicules, Italiotes, Africans to move back in front of the Hellenic colonists and to merge partly with them. The assimilation appears to have been supplements especially in the Peloponnese. In Hellade itself and Thessalie, the old population must have formed some independent groups for a long time. As for montueuse Epire, one knows that the Greeks never succeeded with the dénationaliser. One can also suppose that the first immigrants melted themselves rather quickly with the aboriginals of Thessalie and that plain with them they constituted what one could call the EP

(1) Polybe XVH. 5: a.vTKt>ykf AiT<0M>y ovx. eisiv " EM.wes have

lasges of Larisses (there was of it a dozen in all, including three in only Thessalie). It is proven today that these aboriginals had arrived in a state of relative civilization. They could clear the grounds and make them fertile, and the oldest agrarian worships are allotted to them. The phallic processions, that Hérodote makes come from Pélasges, do not have anything Greek good, this seems to us. Latone, Apollo, Artémis are .des divinities which Aryâs of India did not maintain us, and which the Greeks had to meet in their new fatherland. The celebrated festivals hyacinthiniennes with Sparte, point out the religious designs of Phénicie and Syria; Venus and Hercules are, if one can speak thus, originating in Ascalon and Tyr. Pallas Athéné, in spite of its entirely Hellenic aspect meets in some of its features, in Lindos, Corinthe and, even in the very Athenian legend of Amazones, with Semitic Astarté.

The Greeks while arriving in their new fatherland were thus placed opposite a population which had crossed the first degrees of the wild life and which was civilized in contact with the colonies and of the Asian influences. They mingled with this population, and as after all they appear to have been higher to him by the physical force and by the language, perhaps by some more raised religious ideas, they dominated it and absorbed it where it was not presented in too compact masses. - The ascending one exerted by the Greeks on the other races of the sphere, was considerable from time immemorial. It became irresistible after the conquest of Alexandre, and one sees immense territories then adopting arts, manners, and especially the idiom of Grecs.Ce movement continued under the Roman domination; but to tell the truth there always existed, and Thucydide maintains us barbarians who of its time spoke at the same time their own language and the Greek language (1). Only this movement had to meet during the first centuries of the establishment of the Greeks of the serious obstacles. A long time colonies Palestinian, Syrian, and especially of small kingdoms pelasgic had to be maintained on the ground of primitive Greece. That of Péiasgiotes appears to have been one of these kingdoms; that of Andania, capital of Lélèges in Messénie, was undoubtedly another. In Larisses appears to have lived during several generations a mixed population of aboriginals and Greeks. The construction of these strengthened enclosures was due undoubtedly to the former inhabitants of the country; but nothing proves that the Greeks were not determined there of considerable number. - The only fact of the construction of Larisses shows that their inhabitants, Pélasges of Pennate and of Amyros feared .déjà the incursions of Doriens and Perrhèbes camped on the southernmost slopes of Olympe, as of Magnètes which traversed Ossa and Pélion (21. Pélasges, mixes rear borigenes and of Aryâs, but where the aboriginals appear to have dominated by the number, were overcome and crushed a little later by the i.ivasion of Thessaliens, followed

(1) Thucyd., IV. 109, F

(2) Duncker, III, p. 20.

about that of Doriens, hard mountain dwellers, true North- mans of antiquity, attracted as later the latter speak fertile grounds and the rich cities about midday. One will now understand without difficulty that the Greeks of the Hellenic confederation, which was founded following the conquest dorienne, designated by the name of Pélasges the primitive Greeks of the Peloponnese, the Attic and other regions still, since these Greeks had carried out the life of the aboriginals with which they had mixed, adopted partly their worships, and had been defended with them behind the kids walls (I). But with stronger reason Hellènes were to call Pélasges the descendants of the aboriginals, since they had héritédulangage and of manners so much is not very cruel their ancestors, as well as theirs handles to build strong castles.

The aboriginals thus appear to be absorbed slowly by the Greek immigrants, as we see the Albanians nowadays, after being themselves widespread to leave especially XIVe century in all the areas of modern Greece, désapprendre until their native idiom and to come Greek in their turn. In Argos, about dry bed of the river formerly separated the Albanian district from that of Hellènes; before the war of independence, no Albanian of Argos, says one, could not speak Greek. One tells as many Albanian Athens of it. The campaigns and the cantons of the Attic, Eubée Southerner, Mégare, Argos, Corinth are today

(1) Let us not forget that there was close to Argos, in Pélopo- nèse, another Larissa with a Jupiter temple.

entirely inhabited of Albanian. The population of the cities only is or absolutely Greek as in Carysto, Nauplie, Corinthe, in Pirée; or the Greek element is dominating there as in Athens, Argos and Mégare (1). In the islands of Hydra, of Spezzia, of Poros, deSalamine it had there before the war against the Turks hardly of women able to speak or only to include/understand Greek; it is this war which involved the Albanians and which cemented the union between the two races. Botzari and Za- calved were Souliotes, Wasso Montenegrin, Chadshi Cristo Serbe (2). On the fleet one spoke then, one speaks still today generally Albanian. But from now on the Albanian wants to be called Helene; he to point out its old nationality, it is in its eyes, to treat it of barbarian. In a little considerable places of At tick the Albanian women speak Greek in the streets, when they are believed observed foreigners; even danë the islands of Hydra, Spezzia, of Salamine, all youth knows the Greek. Everywhere today the descendant of Skipétars recognizes the superiority of the language, the genius and the Hellenic letters; and it undergoes readily the ascending one of a civilization which seems to ennoblir those which adopt it.

This fact is of an major importance and it makes take a considerable step with our research. Indeed, just as the Albanian nowadays behind the Greek, wouldn't it is dissimulated have been already let absorb by him in former times? Will not be necessary it to recognize in Alba-

(1) Hahn, p. 223.

(2) Hahn. p. 258.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:41 am

be born the downward one from the antique race of Pélasges? Hahn thinks it, but as it concentrated its studies especially on Albania itself, the evidence pled by him in favour of its thesis do not appear sufficient. We will try in the following pages to discover others and to thus contribute of them to supplement its beautiful work.

§ 9. - The solution of Sémitistes. - Pélasges. Pelishtiin,

Why Greece enjoying a so beautiful climate, of a generally fertile ground would have been a desert before the immigration of the Greeks? Hérodote says expressly that she was inhabited by barbarians: its demonstration is significant, if it is not conclusive. Thucydide does not decide also clearly, but it seems to abound in the same direction; Pausanias and especially Strabon provide curious evidence .à l'appui de the thesis supported by Hérodote. Only Pélasges not being Greek, could be other thing that of Orien - rate, that a population similar to that of these Phéniciens, of these Cariens whose vessels penetrated in all bays, in all the gulfs of the peninsula, establishing stations in all the favorable places, trafficker, plundering, working the money mines, seeking the famous shell which provides the color crimson.

It sometimes was thought and Rœth did not hesitate to identify neAtwjc/et Peleshti fi';. T of this word, says it, is not radical, it belongs to the ending in peleshet. The topic is pallash the emigrant, expression which was preserved in Ethiopic falasi. Then he adds: that the Greeks replaced the Semitic shin by the ay groups, ffx is known. and ^x- Indeed, Hahn reports (2) that the Jews living the East, whatever the idiom of which they are useful, Greek, Wallachian, Turkish or Arab, designate the Albanians by the name of Pelishtim i.e. Philistins. But this fact, if as well is as it proves something, does not prove nothing for the etymology Rœth. The Jews called the Greeks by their older name: Yavan. The traditions of highest antiquity remained long-lived on their premises as at the majority of the people of Raising; but cestraditions always do not rest on scientifically established facts. Thus the Jews call still today Germany Ashkenas, name of a descendant To gum, and people that Jérémie seems to place not far from Arménie. (Cpr. Ascanius, etc) There is nothing impossible so that, sailing on the vessels of Phéniciens and Cariens, they met in X' 1 century in the Archipelago and on Asia-Minor these frightening pirates, and having intended them to call N” \ afyoi, they inflicted to them, using a false etymology, the name of an also enemy and hated race. With the surplus Pélasges and Philistins had establishments in Crete (3), ilss' were there

(1) Hahn. p. 258. (2.1 Hahn, p. 224.

(3) One is not unaware of only the Bible made come the Philistines from Caph- tor. countries in which some historians would like to recognize undoubtedly often mixed, and could with the sometimes confused rigour being. But to find in these Pélasges antiques the Albanians of today, it should be admitted that they spoke, not Greek, but Albanian, or a language similar to Albanian. The equation Pélas- ges-Albanian would be established, but that of Pélasyes-Plish- tim would be isolated.

One cannot stop with the thought that the funds of the primitive population of Greece was composed of Semites; there would have remained about it deeper traces in the legends, the history and the geography, and even in the language of Hellènes. The influence of Phéniciens on the Greeks would not know, undoubtedly, being disputed. It bursts in the transmission of the letters of the alphabet, many religious traditions, the names of a crowd of islands, small islands and places located on the edges of the sea and with the mouth of the rivers. But with the single exception of Thèbes near, they do not appear to have based serious colonies on the Hellenic continent; it was enough for them, generally, to have stations for their traffic and the fishing of the shell which provides the crimson. I would not like to however support sometimes that hordes of emigrants joined together had not tried to penetrate in the interior of the grounds and had not succeeded in at least mixing and merging with the indigenous population. Strabon in the famous passage where he teaches us that Greece was inhabited formerly by barbarians, quotes inter alia the tribes of Aoniens, Hyantes and Temmices (Ts/^ufxef) like having invaded Béotie. He adds that they were driven back by Cadmus, founder precisely of Thèbes, and that Hyantes rejected towards the E tolie and Phocide, founded Hyampolis. Let us not try to clear up the origin of Aoniens and Hyantes; the explanation which we could provide not presenting a sufficient character of certainty. Let us fix our attention on Temmices; Strabon says expressly, that they had come from the borough and the headland of Sunium. However, the Sunium words and Temmicesne could be explained using Greek roots; but Hebrew returns reason without effort from there. Sunium indeed appears to come from the verb jl^shounlreposerj^al^; (shouni) peaceful, estlenom of a son of Gad, T3 Z1 \ there (shounêm) two places of rest, that of a city in the tribe of Isashar. Sunium as Salamine would be thus: place of calm and peace, a place of refuge for the exhausted sailors, vessels damaged. - The letter T in Termes answers S (Z] Hebrew; thus *i] Xtzôr) fortress, made Idfof (Tyr) in Greek. Temmices derives obviously from a verb ~0¥ (Zamak) which is only one alternative of SQ^ (Zamê) to be faded, desiccated (CP. Zamaen Africa, properly: thirst). From there piaï dryed grapes, and cake where one makes some enter, still today in Italian: simmuki. Temmices are consequently the inhabitants of an arid canton, burned by the sun. However, with the southern point of the Attic precisely the dème of the 'AÇw was; -/, otherwise desiccated. - Does one Want another example of a trace of Semitic populations established on the ground of Greece? Pausanias calls the most former inhabitants of Béotie Hec- tenes; they would have lived there at the time of Ogyge. (CP. proper names of Gygès, Guèges and Okéanos). It is there all that one knows. The word does not appear Greek, but he is extremely well explained like Hiphil of the pop verb (ka- your) to be small; and he answers thus perfectly in the name of Minyens, whose direction is: the small ones, tribe living famous Jolcos and Orchomenos, cities also, the second especially, by the forwarding of Argonautes, which was organized by the Minyens chiefs; by their constructions, their trade and their richnesses which were accumulated there as of before the time of the Trojan War. As well as the inhabitants of Thèbes, Minyens were early in contact with Phéniciens, and there is no doubt that the latter did not mingle with them of rather great number.

Crete. But today one admits more readily than this name indicates the Eastern coast of Egypt, the North-East of the Delta where. Semites had been able to be maintained even after the expulsion of Hyp- S.O.S. One explains Have-Kaphtor by the Egyptian words Aa-Kaft. islands and coasts.

These double names throw a gleam over obscure times of the legend and mythology Hellenic. Thus Hésychius teaches us that the name of Hector is a Phrygian word, that it has the same direction as Astfsîcf Persian and than it means careful (^ ' wifjnx}. One can about it bring closer Germanic Hœgni, hegen, hecken, aus- hecken. Let us recall while passing another Troïen: Paris also indicated by the Greek name of Alexandre.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:42 am

10. - Etymology of the name of Pélasges

It would be strong to wish that one could discover the double of the name of Pélasges in order to know the origin best of it and to include/understand the direction of them. This name indeed present the disadvantage of admitting a too great number of éty- mologies. If one could see in the last syllable of \ a.syi>s a shortened form of the ending - ysrof which we find in words such as Tnhvyeros, Ia.vysToi (word for word: if large:) , Pélasges could be simply 01 ytsyovoTif Tréh&s, i.e. the neighbors. This name would have been given to them by the Greek immigrants, who on all the points of the country settled beside them. Just as the form - ysjof answers the last participle of the scr. g' year to be born: g' quoted, that of yot would answer the form scr. shortened g' has which has the same direction and meets at the end of the compounds. One can be astonished that this etymology was still proposed by nobody; perhaps spider monkey the disadvantage to appear too simple. It is admitted with difficulty, that of. very old words did not undergo in the course of the centuries of the deep changes and sometimes of true deformations.

One could also suppose that the word ~le \ a.<ryos was formed by! métathèse of sTré^nyo: like yctryatHiv says itself for rfctyctvotr (</<j>ctrn) and \ \ $a.syoi name of a population of the Caucasus for 'h&y being. The Greek language does not feel reluctant precisely with the consonance ry, as it is proven by words such as niaya, Kîayos, îiayix, khiayta. in Albanian wants to say rock, cave of a rock; it is the Greek a-rn^a.tw, a-jrrihity^ Latin spelunca. We do not dare to insist.

Hahn sees in the first syllable of Ue \ a.yyô< the Greek T “M.6f, been windy, véheics black, noirâtre vl. In the second he believes to recognize motpelasgic a.çyo< (alb. âf “a) which would not be other than the gr. à.ypôs, lat. ager, goth. a/crs, that the Greeks would have, in this proper name at least, deformed in - afy' off. It translates consequently: inhabitants of the black cotton soils, of the fertile grounds gets along, and it quotes Strabon which had already noticed that Larisséens of the plain of Mysie as well as those of Thessalie had been established on grounds of alluvium, along the river bank of Caystre, Hermos and Pennate (2i. He adds according to Denis d' Halicarnasse (.3) that Pélasges which emigrated in Italy laughed to yield by the aboriginals the marshy grounds of Vélie (iv O' H riinà. Tro^hk |a.<s<ph), and that the city accepted its name precisely these marshes. The facts pled by Hahn could not be disputed: it is in regions similar to those which Strabon and Denis describe that the culture of the ground had to begin. But we also believe that in the word ù-yt'-t the position of the two consonants is essential; it is significant, i.e. it fixes the direction of them. The many cities which bear the name of has rgos can be located all or almost all in plains. In our eyes that will be only one chance, and we will remain faithful to the principle which orders to attach as much as possible the words which one seeks the origin with the existing roots. For us “Ap^o? will be, until new order, the White one or white space. Such were to appear to the primitive men these first centers of the human society with their whole of streets, turrets, temples and walls, slicing highly under a sky of azure on the dark green of the wood and the dark color of the ground.

it) Hahn, p. 244.

! .2) Strabon, XII. p. 621:7 i<na.ij. 'iy>j: <><nw T3 Denis d' Halic., I, 20.

We reserved up to now one of oldest and the most naive explanations of the word Us^cnyoi, explanation which already in antiquity defrayed the cheerfulness of the Athenians. According to this one nor \ a.ay! >f would be indeed a softer form, more modern for tre^apylis the bird with the black and white plumage, the stork. Though Aristophane, in its Birds, had fun to call ro ^s \ a.pyinoi the bastion builds close to the Acropolis by Pélasges, nothing proves that \ ctçyoi was not really the first form of the name of the people of which we study the origins. It is that 7ri \ tiçyi> {was not used only like name appellative. Pausanias maintains us (1) Pélargé which restores in Thèbes the worship pelasgic desKabires (divinities originally phenicians) abolished by the Epigones after their victory. The language often differentiates by a light nuance from the form two concepts which merged in the beginning and were expressed by the same mot. the Greek provides many examples here: S'^si liga-

(1) Paus., IX. chap. xxv.

bit and ïeàset oportebit; <p”|uî, <pi&>, qa.iva-yca.ia and \ - j.s (M \ and “iiw, isWi and <é” “/, etc ^1). Pélasges would thus hold their name of the wandering life which they carried out in the first centuries of their long migrations, their frequent displacements. This name is justified enough by the table that Thucydide traces, in the first pages of its history, of the instability of the establishments of the tribes traversing at one unmemorable time the regions of Greece, disputing on an always moving scene the best grounds and the best pasturages, guerroyant together without interruption, supplanting and succeeding the ones the others, ending with long up mixing and merging.

However, there were on the ground of Greece another people, be-EC another? - being called Storks, exactly like Pélasges; they was LéZèges. In Albanian effetLjeljek wants to say the stork. This coincidence takes place to surprise; it seems a new index of the diversity of the races which, at the origin, ran up on the Hellenic ground. The word Pélasges would be thus only the traduc- tiond' a name Albanian appellative, become proper name. The word Pelishtim, whose the Jews make use of Raising to designate the Albanians would be yet only the same word (Pélasges) deformed, or if one likes better, transformed following more or less erroneous historical combinations. Finally these Pélasges, to which one could join

(1) Everyone knows the many double forms of the French language: roide and rigid, frail and fragile, ones popular and shortened by an energetic accent: others again introduced into the language by the classes well-read women and erudite, preserving with the majority of their elements, their Latin significance.

Tyrrhenian, Lyciens, Caucons, Dardaniens etc, large wall builders, large manufacturers of castle-forts, could not be well not Greeks thoroughbred. Be-they not rather ancestors of the mountain dwellers épirotes who still today emigrate each year by groups in Greece and theMinor one, renting their arms with which wants to pay them to brick up these more or less cyclopean walls, walls much less durable than those of antiquity and resembling to them however by the imperfection of the processes of a very primitive art?

It is there of enough sharp gleams. So now it was possible for us, in the middle of the old geographical and historical names of Greece, to discover of it a certain number, whose resources of the Greek language could not return account, and who presented an easy direction only explained with the assistance of Albanian; so especially these Albanian names were assigned to places which the tradition announces us like having been inhabited by of Lélè- ges, the gleams would become perhaps clearnesses; Albanian would have been spoken in all the extent about the Hellenic fatherland, before the arrival of Aryâs Greek.

But before approaching this new study, it is important to say a word of these Lélègesqui are essential all-with blow to our attention; we will have to be also explained on the help which we await from a serious examination of Albanian grammar and especially of the Albanian vocabularies.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:43 am

§ 11. - Lélèges and Pélasges.

These people neglected a long time by the historians nowadays caused the erudite searchs for Misters Kie- PERT and Deimling. The last in particular, by accumulating many materials, endeavoured to prove that Lélèges came directly from Asia, that they are of the same race than the Greeks, like all the tribes installed on the soldel' Hellade before the arrival of the Greeks, like Kourètes, Caucons, Hyantes and perhaps Pélasges themselves. With are the eyes of Mr. Deimling Tro- ïens of race Phrygienne, the Phrygian ones not being them also that a branch of the big family of Aryâs - finally, which would believe it? Cariens themselves would be a species of Pélasges, i.e., Greeks detached later of the group pelasgic by the invasion of the Semites, invasion placed by Mr. Deimling after the Trojan War. All that because an author, who lived time of Alexandre, declares that the language of Cariens ceased being a hard language, a great number of Greek words there being slipped (1); and because Homère would not have made to mention nowhere Semites in general and Lydians in particular. Like if Assaracos, for example, wire of Tros and grand' father of Anchise, were not a Semitic name like if the memories of manners and of

(1) Strabon, p. 565. T.V, mû jrh.eïfTa, w' ofJMTu. e^hniuxà. l'/^ei

Semitic worships did not abound in the legend troïenne.

What one can affirm, it is that following the example them Pélas- ges, Lélèges meet about in all the parts of Greece. They are widespread in the Peloponnese i.e. in Messénie, laLaconie and Triphylie; one finds them in Hellade proprementdite, i.e. in Acarnanie, in Leucadie, where Lélex would have been the grandfather of Téléboes and the ïaphiens; in the country of Locriens, which according to Aristote (1) would have been called Lélèges formerly; in Béotie where they are named beside Aoniens and of Hyantes; in Mégaride finally, where Lélex come from Egypt would have come to be established and would have imposed the name of Lélèges to the inhabitants of the country. Lastly, they lived the islands of the Archipelago a long time; they occupied the Western coast of theMinor one, and let us see we them installed close and in the middle of Cariens, of Troïens, in Thèbe, Autandros, Ephèse, Milet, Myndos, Bargylie; it appears on according to Strabon, that they covered with their kid cities part of Pisidie. Let us not forget only Locriens, which in any time appear to have lived the same ground that Lélèges (2), attached their family tree to Deucalion. This last with the head of Hellènes, to which from Lélèges and Courètes would have come to join, would have crossed Acarnanie and Etolie and would have driven out Pélasges of Thessalie. The origin of this tradition of Locriens,

(1) At Strabon, VII, 7. f2j Denis d' Halicarnasse. L, 7: Kovfr.rw Jtaî AfA^VW, oî vvv \ tKfoi

find its explanation in some worms of large Eées d' Hésiode:

Hto/yètç Ao<fo$ hehéyav SiyiiffctTo
All pâ, Tote Kfor/<r “F Zevs curved.
AêXT ovs îx.

It is a question here obviously for the poet of giving an account of the direction of the name of Lélèges by one of these a little puerile etymologies whose old ones are if prodigal. It presents them like a confused mixture of wandering hordes (m&toÎ, svAAejcTo/, [juj-Âfes and y/>hW 7r ^a.vtnoi), opinion whose not only Strabon and Denys d' Halicarnasse, but still Bœckh and other philologists modern appear to have been easily deceived.

Hésiode and Denys d' Halicarnasse would consequently appear to see in Pélasges and Lélèges two people distinct. They were it undoubtedly, but they however resembled each other and were très-probablement of the same race. We will point out that all and sundry lived peacefully side by side in the Decay (1). Antan- dros which according to the Alcée poet belonged to Lélèges (2), is called a city of Pélasges by Hérodote (3); the island of Andros, which formerly carried itself according to Pline, the name of Antandros had a pelasgic population (4). Strabon, according to Homère, Pélasges place, Lélèges and Cau-

<1) Strabon. XIV. 2,27.
2) Strabon. XIII, 1. 51.
<3) Herod., VII, 42.
V' NR. H. IV, 2,22, S 65,

idiots about on the line (1), and if the Peloponnese, so in particular Arcadie passed for the oldest fatherland of Pélasges, Lélex is called the most former inhabitant, or better, the most former king autochthonedeLacédémone (2). Side of Mégare, Lélèges appear only to have one foot on the dry land; it is that there is at side the powerful canton of Argos inhabited by of Pélasges. Joined together in Locriens, Courètes, or confused with them, they occupy a broad place in the Western part of Greece. On the other hand they are Pélasges which imposes their name on Dodone, in Thessalie, and which even dominates in the Attic, since, according to Hérodote, the Ionian ones also are of Pélasges. At first sight Pélasges and Lélèges appear to us as two tribes which unequally divide Greece, the islands and the coasts of Anatolia. When one looks at there more closely, Pélasges are presented in the form of the strongest nation. The Greeks having penetrated in the country by north, found there, plain with natural in Dodone, in Thessalie, Argo- lide, of true centers, hearths of civilization peeled gic. The role of Lélèges is much more unobtrusive; everywhere they fold and disappear with the approaches from the history. The series of kings Lélèges who reign in Amyclée, Thérapné, Andanie is replaced without apparent shock by the Achaean dynasty. Ancée, king of Lélèges to Its mos, accomodates the Ionian colonists who come to be established in his island; it does not resist to them. Already at the time of Homère, Broken, king of Lélèges dePédasos, had succumbed

(1) Strabon, XII, 8,4.

(2) Pausanjas, III, 1,1: IV, 1,1,

under the blows of Achilles; this last had devastated pareillement the small towns of Thèbe and Lyrnesse, pertaining to the same people. It is only the legend locrienne quoted by us higher, who allots auxLélèges a role of winners and conquerors. It is an isolated note to which an etymology without value scientific, but appreciated formerly, could only give a momentary authority. Still Lélèges they are presented there like having fought to the second rank (\ on^s Ae \ éyw nyiwcno Ko.Ùv).

Lélèges are one of these primitive, inoffensive races and weak, which yield soon the step to the races more strongly soaked north, which have the role of founding states, to establish durable traditions, to inaugurate progress in the history. Lélèges appear to be subjected about without resistance to the immigrants; and, partly, they were let absorb by them. On the islands, they were the prey of Cariens, which often made some, as Strabon tells it to us, their auxiliaries and their comrades in arms, more often still their slaves. This situation still lasted of the time of Alexandre, since a writer of this time, Philippe de Théangèle gives us the insurance in formal terms of it (1). Lélèges appear to have been for Cariens this quelesCillicyriens were for the Greeks of Syracuse, Bebryces for those of Cyzique, the Libyan tribes, for those of Cyrène. To accept with a so great eagerness the constraint, hardly appears to be in

(1) Athenaeum, VI, 267: Kcti Kâfe” tynat roîV hétefyv èùf rô. '- o.i Ts X “I Ci?.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:43 am

practices of Hellenic people of race or even indoeuropéenne. Also we consider Lélèges as the primitive inhabitants of all the countries which occupy us; their name is oldest that one meets there; we find them on the islands of the Archipelago before in Cariens overcome and subjected in their turn by Minos, king de Crète. The hegemony exerted by this last on the Aegean Sea undoubtedly goes up beyond the time of the Trojan War. We thus manage to fix the time when Lélèges lived free on a ground that nobody disputed to them yet, in XIIIe and perhaps at the XIV " century before our era.

§ 12. - Continuation of the same subject. - Lélèges, Pélasges and Gréco-Pélasges.

Lélèges undoubtedly form part of the mass of the pelasgic and greco-pelasgic population; but while being withdrawn more and more towards the south and in the islands, they appear to have preserved an about independent existence a long time and to be themselves not confused with this mass. Pélasges and Greco-Pélasges in our opinion were born from the mixture of the Greeks and the primitive inhabitants from the country. Las Greco-Pélasges in particular appear to have constituted entirely new people, which after being itself installed in the valley of Dodone, around the lake Achérusien, occupied the fertile grounds of Thessalie, and delaPhocide, disputed that of Béotie in Cadméens, penetrated in the Peloponnese by the isthmus, invades north, the center and is peninsula and founded, the kingdom, a long time powerful (for these times) of Pélopides. The fusion of the two races in which the Hellenic element acquired the preponderance quickly, gave birth to a poetry, an art, worships, a whole civilization to which former inhabitants of the countries driven back more and more towards the south or worms of the less fertile cantons of the west, remain initially foreign. Of Locriens, of Etoliens, Acarnaniens attend them and mingle with them, without it resulting from this contact of the durable establishments and throwing glare. It is only much later that Lélèges will be included in the “stock” of the Hellenic population, in which they will disappear without leaving of another trace that the names of some cities and some mystical worships (for example in Andanie). - Pélasges themselves were born, according to us, pareillement of the mixture of the Greeks and natural of the country; - but in fusion, it is the blood lélège which dominates and which was renewed by the crossing with the stronger race. They are there Pélasges of Larisses which, expul its of the Teas dirtied and later of the Attic, emigrated, pursued by Doriens, on the islands and the coasts of theMinor one. There they could find men of their race having the same uses and speaking the same language as them. Indeed, Homère shows us Pélasges, Lélèges, Lyciens combined in Troyens and Dardaniens, all confused in the same rows and also hostile with the Hellenic name. All these tribes appear to have spoken about the dialects of the same language, different from the Greek idiom, but in which, thanks to frequent free intercourse that the war as peace established between the natural ones and the invaders, a crowd of Greek words had been able to slip. - The Greeks besides knew this language; they intended it to speak every day in the countries that they had just conquered on the continent of Europe, exactly like the Greeks of today are not very surprised while intending to speak Albanian at side and in the middle of them. Only the more raucous intonations of Cariens strongly semitized appear to have formed a dissension with the more harmonious dialects of the indigenous races; this is why does Homère call them £ “? £a.poyât>ovs. Is it necessary to include/understand among these Cariens Ciliciens established in Mysie? The names of their small towns of Thèbe and Lyrnesse indicate an origin lélège. But Ciliciens could be seized a territory which did not belong to them initially, while leaving with the places their old denomination. Ciliciens themselves are certainly Sémites; the proof is provided by it all at the same time by the names of their aïeux: Phoenix and Agénor, and by the name which they carried themselves, Cilix being other thing only Hebrew pSn meaning batch, portion (ground, gets along). Ciliciens would be x^foû^o/in the Greek direction. - Remainder the Semitic names abound in Anatolia and Troade in particular. Gergis, Kebren, Adramyttion are certainly cities founded or inhabited by Semites. Semitic gods were venerated in Ilion etàDardanie, and a Semitic dynasty appears to have reigned there. - We believe however that the primitive limit of the Semitic races was Halys. It is by the conquest that Cariens, Ciliciens, Ly-

diens for which it is perhaps necessary to add the Assyrians, was made a place in the center and on the coasts of Asia Mineure itself; all the ground that they occupy there, appears to be removed with the first inhabitants of this region.

§ 13. - Albanian, the language of Lélèges. Character of this language.

We think that the primitive inhabitants of Greece and Asia-Minor until Halys, had to speak about the idioms more or less similar to the Albanian language; we would even dare to say that they spoke the same language as Skipétars nowadays, if one could make use of the term of identity, when it has been about a language of use in the same region for more than 3000 years. Is the modern Greek the same language as the Greek of Homère? and how Albanian nowadays could it be comparable with dialects spoken in highest antiquity, when of these dialects there do not remain to us monuments; when they were not fixed by school traditions? Let us add that the Albanian vocabulary offers to us a true formed mosaic of the remains of a crowd of idioms of use among people which invaded and had in turn the neighbouring Epire antique and countries. After the Greek who provided a formidable quota, comes Latin surrounded of the languages which contributed to form it and of those to which it gave birth. Mr. Miklosich enumerates 930

Romance words whose existence in the Albanian language goes up, partly at least, higher than the Roman domination, and perhaps higher than the foundation of Rome itself. The Slavic languages such as the Serb one, the Bulgarian one, ledalmate, etc, contributed for more than 300 words; much more significant is the supplement provided by the Turkish language carting in its turbid water some Arabic pieces. Finally one should not too much be astonished to meet in the Albanian dictionary of Ci from there, some Germanic words; Visigoths invaded the country towards the end of the 4th century of our era, and they occupied it during more than 130 years. Still, should not it be forgotten, that good number of German words had slipped into Italian and had been able to find the way of the coast of Albania under a foreign flag.

11 remains to us nevertheless a notable group of Albanian words that no foreign language can help us to explain and who seems to come from old the funds native. They partly express the first most essential concepts such as: to see, hold, live, to have, send, say, live, seize, enter, eat; then: ground, sea, bird, Master, young girl, brother and so much of others. As for grammar, it has, as Bopp extremely well showed, of the many relationship with that of other Indo-European languages; and Mr. Miklosich showed by a crowd of examples that in the conj Albanian ugaison and the derivation of the words, the influences of the flexives forms and the Slavic and Turkish endings were very-sensitive. Perhaps it would be useful to show well in what consists, according to us, the deeply original character of the alba-

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

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be born. The adjectives of this language have like those of Slavic kind of appendix of pronominal origin; these names suffixent an article, as make Rumanian and the Bulgarian one (1). But its pronouns have odd forms, often heteroclite; the plural of a great number of substantives presents unexplained strangenesses until now; sometimes a syllable is inserted between the radical and the ending, p. e.g.: /3e \ *” brother (Se^a-Stock-m (2) brothers; tan tôtla vowel of the radical undergoes a modification, p. e.g.: K “.w ox, kje-Re oxen; Éfea goes, pi. £veçTe; S~oçex.m&m, p \. JWfTs (3). Ily ades substantive whose variation is completely irregular; like I-ja it ewe, pi. fine. It is quite other thing in the conjugation. Ony finds this change of the vowel of the radical which points out teutonic apophony, p. e.g.: We \ I give birth to, ToVa aorist, pi. vovet^f/. Bfa$, jetue, imparf. lrc nobody: /3pari] ~ ou/3pâffe; 3m<-sea-green. : fys plural sea-green lre. : ^â.se^. ; sea-green 3mc. : fy' nve, etc That to say then strange augment” v which precedes regularly the passive aorist or average and which could be well identical to same syllable OV inserted so often between the radical and the ending? = of the past participle, p. e.g.: £êTî, I

(1) The Wallachian one is the only one of all the néo-Latin languages, COM; the Bulgarian one is the only one of all the Slavic languages, which places the article after the name. Were these two idioms thus obviously subject to the influence of Albanian in can-one not concluding, that Albanian was spoken non-seulement much in the past than breadths two idioms mentioned, but what it was as widespread in a ray much vaster as today?

(2) The insertion of a syllable takes place in the singular sometimes, for example: Çcy, bird (indefinite), i^oiyx-sv with the article.

(3) These modifications point out those which one finds in the Semitic variation. Female Kotê/pa de Kctf, the carien on the contrary is formed exactly like Çoiyx, - OV of fyy the bird.

go; leaves. : /2 =6T-ou-fe, walk, vfévy-OV-Ge sitting, beside pâfe fallen, ar/fê or aiiiçt thrown? There is then a score of completely irregular verbs, of which several, such as ii^T I give, a' O and fâ-^ I see, p7et pry I sat,/? <7 I come and, 3/e I fall, I carry, form a few times and some people of other roots.

One knows until now only one small number of endings, àl' assistance whose has lieula derivation of the adj ectifs and the substantives. Thus the formation of the words and their classification by roots were not tried yet by the albanophiles, it is the most obscure part of the language of Skipétars. Let us quote to finish two Greek idioms, which are found in Albanian; it is initially turning You has” fi* Tféxei. Substantives, used in the plural only in Albanian, though having a singular direction, the adjective in the plural but the verb in the singular claims only, p. e.g.: Sjx.sts isrs ve 7rtx.sTs the cheese is rancid (1). It is then analytical turning O viix O rov Trarçof, N %vya. Ttip M - laugh nmfa. This construction is of Albanian rigour (2). The latter being with our direction a language older than the Greek, we believe that it is this one which inherited the singularities of that one. One would not include/understand that the Greek had inserted some of these turns original and little known in other languages, in an idiom as rudimentary as Albanian.

This last must-it to be reproduced on a list of the languages indoeuropéennes? With this question one can answer by yes or not. It is undoubtedly neither a Semitic language, nor

(1) Hahn, p. 39.

(2) Hahn, p. 42 Albanian Grammar).

a language touranienne. Its variation and its conjugation offer some vague resemblances to those of the idioms which group around Sanskrit; it has in COM munavec the latter the names of number. But we know, that it is a weak argument there to establish the relationship between two languages; - the Arab names of number penetrated in a crowd of African languages, in substituent with the indigenous words which indicated them. One can say that the organization and the syntax of Albanian are rather European. But it would be by no means impossible that Pélasges, Lélèges, Lyciens and Dardaniens had spoken there are 30 to 40 centuries an idiom sui generis, still embryonic and fusible, if it is allowed to be thus expressed, that this idiom had been formed and transformed in contact with the Indo-European idioms spoken about the people which wrapped these primitive races, and which it had taken model on them, without entirely abdicating its originality. I am by no means dissimulated the danger to which I expose myself by having recourse in my research to a also strange language and as little known as Albanian. I am not unaware of either that it is often not very easy to indicate the modifications undergone by the same word, when it passes from a language to other languages belonging to the same family. The difficulties increase, when it is a question of fixing according to principles the forms which the same words pronounced by men affect speaking about the idioms which are not congeneric. But the obstacles appear almost insurmountable, when onse finds in the presence of a language, whose grammar is not sufficiently elucidated, and whose forms are mainly floating. Here it is necessary to compensate for the precision details, the smoothness of the analysis by the obvious identity of the radicals, analogies many and seizing, the agreement of the ethnographic traditions and the linguistic results.


SECOND BOOK

THE LINGUISTIC EVIDENCE

§ 1. - Lélèges according to professor Kiepert and Lyciens according to Dr. Blau.

We choose as starting point of research which will follow, the judgement related to the question which occupies us, by the famous geographer Mr. Kiepert. One can, known as-it, using a crowd of linguistic facts, to give an high degree of probability to the assertion that the primitive people designated at one prehellenic time of the name of Lélèges by of Sémito-Pélasges, is quite simply the same one as that which, in the history, known under the name of Illyriens is spread in the large European peninsula of the south-east, whose remainders and descendants preserve still today under the name of Skipétars or of Albanian their old idiom so much and so deeply transformed.

We share fully the opinion of the scientist pro

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:46 am

fessor of Berlin; we will ask him only if he understands by Sémito-Pélasges the primitive natives of Greece who were civilized in contact with Phéniciens installed on the islands and some points of the dry land, or Cariens who, at one time difficult to determine, had crossed and mixed with the Semites come from beyond del' Halys. We would also like to know, for which reason it seems to him that the name of Lélèges has a Semitic origin. It is certain that the word can be explained using the Hebraic language, where ^yh and, [hy (laeg' and it) mean stammerer or speaking like a barbarian. The first L of the name desLélèges could be explained as in lepsek (Lampsaque), Liebris, Lilybée, i.e. the places of passage, the Hebrews, the Libyans. It would be the letter L indicating the dative in the Semitic languages. But until new order we will remain faithful to the etymology which is provided to us by the Albanian language.

On another side, Doctor Otto Blau endeavoured to establish in an very-interesting article, published in the Collection of the German Eastern Company, in 1863, qu ' there are many relationship, close friends between manners, the legends and the language of old Lycie and those of Albania. While making reserves about the way in which the inscriptions lycians were interpreted by him, we believe that Doctor Blau guessed the truth and that on several points it met it. While serving to us as several of its judicious observations, as well as abundant data by Mr. Hahn, us drudges to develop the outlines of our predecessors, by grouping them and by connecting them between them. We would like to give an high degree of probability with what, until now had appeared to be only one presumption and an assumption, and a range more serious and vaster with what was regarded quite simply as an interesting sight.


§ 2. - Names of the Lélèges cities formed using the Anda root.

Movers already had noticed that a crowd of names of cariennes cities ended in the syllable anda (I). Mr. Blau notices in his turn that this ending is found in the names of a great number of localities still now existing in Albania, such as: Pra- manda, Gurasenda, Agnonda, Marandi, Kurendo (2). As for us, we will try to initially excavate the ground, which with the eyes of the former Greeks passed to have been more particularly the fatherland of Lélèges, since they had preserved to him the name of Lélégie (\ E \ tyM~) \ we want to speak about Messénie and Laconie. We will seek to find there the same anda root in the names of the ancient cities of these cantons, by expressing the hope that in the event of success the results will be able to provide the key of more than one problem, unsolved until our days.

(1) Movers Phœnicier, III. p. 255.

(2) Blau. p. 661, according to the charts of Albania de Kiepert.

According to Pausanias (1), Lélex was regarded as oldest living south of the Peloponnese. It would have had for Neptune father and a mother Libya, girl of Epaphos. This genealogy seems to indicate that a part at least of the population of the country was originating in Africa. Our later observations will tend, if we are not mistaken, to strengthen this assumption.

Lélex and its successors would have reigned, always according to Pausanias, during several clées generations with Amy-, old capital of Laconie. The second wire of Lélex, which had name Polycaon, would have founded a new kingdom, and, name of his wife Messène, it would have called it Messénie; it would have built there, inter alia Anda- cities denies, which was to be the residence of the kings of the country. Bense- ler, continuator of the dictionary of the Greek proper names of Pope, translated Andanie: pleasant city. Already Etienne de Byzance had made come this word from à.vS' â.veiv - it is true that it had added like comment the negation (/*” &v Siu/w, exactly as formerly one reduced “read cus I” has not lucendo). - One can be astonished with reason which a German philologist could make a similar blunder. It is as if one wanted to form present juap&itw, KaL^luiai, Ka.tàk.vu of the substantives [j.u.v%ct.via., etc, instead of forming them /u topics “Sr, *<*£, ha%. One cannot give an account of this word using the Greek language. To seize the direction of them, it is necessary to have recourse to Albanian. Already, in the vocabulary of Xylander one reads: vréna. to be sitted. Hahn presents the form vféija. as being the irregular aorist of the verb pi, j>iy I sit, I sat, I

(1) Psusanias, I, 34; III. 1. 1,

rest me (1). NT “W and vS' étja. seem to be attached to the verb vhf, vféiy, vïiviy (dialect guégeois) I extend, I draw, I spread. From there participles vféça., vfehovça., vfévnpijct meaning tension, extension, wide; finally the substantives vféwjovpa., wfeiTpeja. dwelling, stay, leisure. The primitive direction of this verb appears to have been that of a movement without determined goal, of a walk. Names of the Greek cities 'O^o^eiftx, “E^evsis, 'EMvSeçtti, which all come from the verb 'éf/opa.! , seem to have indicated places where one walked, of the busy places. The river of Syria, which bears the name of Eleuthéros, wants to not say that which is free, but that which goes; the names of Padus and Ganges (of Po and Gange) do not mean another thing. However the name of Andanie is not returned by 'Q^c^evis in Greek, but well by OÎx “a/<* - it is there indeed, the second name that Andanie would have carried according to Strabon (2). It is probably one of these so frequent double names in the countries inhabited by different races. There were four cities of the nomd' Oechalie in Greece, namely: in Eubée, in Thessalie, Etolie and finally in Messénie or Arcadie. The word contains a rather general direction indeed, if, as we it think, it is composed of olutt and *a “, and that it means group of houses or households (3).

(1) Camarda (Grammatologia, I, 301) explains the two words tfatlf, vSlu/f; neighbor, near, and it makes them come from vS' I “w/e on side, at side

(2) Strabon. p. 291,33.

(3) The ruins of the town of Andanie were found in 1840, by the famous traveller Ernest Curtius, close to the village of Suadani 'for in 'AcJWîac, like Stamboul for elt Tw

In Troade we find the town of Andeira, having belonged, it also, in Lélèges, according to the testimony of Strabon (1), then an affluent of Scamandre YAndiros. Lesdeux words come directly from Albanian i'<Nf “, wide. The Antandros city being allotted pareillement to Lélèges, one can see in this name a grecized form of Antandeira. The origin of the name of the island of Andros would find at the same time its explanation.

There was in the Decay a city called Bap^ÔAi*, founded said one, by certain Bargylos, friend of Belléro- phon (2). The word could be of Albanian origin, &a.i>x. - yov meaning in the idiom of Skipétars series, crown, i.e. pregnant of houses and walls. But what interests us it is that this city would have been also called " AcJWov by Cariens (3). For Cariens, it is necessary to perhaps read Lélèges. It is known that the two people were often confused in antiquity, and Hérodote itself believed that Cariens had been called Lélèges formerly. Proto-Cariens can have been of the same family as the latter; they can have spoken to a language similar to that desLycians, Dardaniens and Pélasges (4).


(1) Strabon, p. 326,56.

(2) Another city of the same region was called Bargasa; one meets Bargula in Macedonia.

(3) I wondered whether Zakkari that one finds in the Egyptian inscriptions would not be Cariens, preceded only by the pronoun nor as an article. In Greek at least F Csa- yin) is returned by a £.

(4) However Cariens which the history makes known to us, already adopted Semitic worships and more than one word of which Hebrew and

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:47 am

The anda root still reappears in the name of the borough of £if Ks,” <F “, close which the port of Trézène was located, called Uâyw (word for word: bore) (I). However, Célendéris is a well-known city of Cilicie, located it also on the sea. Both Célendéris like both Salamine, are apparently in the report/ratio of metropolis with colony; but as we deal here not with of Phéniciens, but with of Lélèges, which will say to us which of these two cities gave rise to the other? One could suppose, that the first syllable of Ke; ÂnStfif contains the abbreviation of the word K/a/£, - in this case the question would be emptied. But perhaps is necessary it to seek a word meaning there building, vessel, Hebrew ^ or the Greek ûws, boat, light boat. We do not astonish to find of Lélèges in Argolide; we will see soon that the town of Trézène itself did not remain to them foreign.

In all the extent of Asia-Minor, in on this side Halys, we meet a series of cities whose names contain the word anda; only this word does not constitute of it any more the radical, but the last element. It is in the Decay: Alabanda (went, horse?) Cary anda, Labranda vde A*6f “, combat axe?) (2). Alinda (3), Telandros de Sri hill?) ; in Lycie: Arycanda (of arouske a ourse?); in Troade close to Adramyttion; Pasan cla (of passed possession; passoure, passouni, rich person?); in Lycaonie; Laranda (of lar stone?); in Pisidie: Isionda or Isinda, Oinoanda, one of the four boroughs forming between Phrygie etlaLyciela large Tétrapolisde Cibyre where four languages spoke each other, those of Pisidiens, Solymes, the Greeks and the Lydians; in doce Wrapped even, but still in on this side Halys: Soanda (of Albanian soua, relationship, race) (1). One can add Bla- ijndos in the Lydie, Telendos, Lepsimandos, Narian- back, Thryanda, Kadyanda.

Arabic can provide the explanation, Etienne de Byzance teaches us that their old name had been bla.vffab.oi. However, Mausolus wants to say main, Hebrew king (7 \ £? Q, to reign; CP. Mossul).

it) Pausanias. II, 39,9.

<2j Lassen makes come has “.j3pt>$ of Arabic will rabara, to seize with the two hands.

(3) II also in Macedonia a city has there '

In Cappadoce, we find the two small towns of Nazianzus and Arianzus illustrated by the birth of saint Gregoire the Large one, Christian speaker of V° century and by that of his/her father. D being slightly assibilé by the Greeks, the Semites living around appears to have enlarged the sound of the dental consonant. Lesdeuxpremières syllables of Nazianze, point out simple Albanian njës, and the two first of Arianzus, the substantive are, countryside, villa. Let us unite in the name of these two cities that of nçiâveioi, inhabitants of a city of Crete.

Let us announce finally in Cappadoce Andabalis stay of Baal and Andraca, in Paphlagonie Andrapa, names in which the syllable and seems to constitute the funds of the words. But what must especially excite our attention, it is that we frequently find it in

(1) Not to confuse with 2, ovâ, yyeha., where according to Etienne de By- zance, the tombs of kings de Carie were. In Albanian j°va.iy Teut to say to extinguish, faith mortuus is. Te/va appears to come from the same root as VéKav and to mean king. The family of famous Ge Ion was of origin carienne. (Preller Griech. Mythology, II, p. 36.


names of cities located well far from Greece at north and the west.

In Macedonia in the country of Pélagones, was a city called in turn Andaristos and Andraristos (this last form is probably grécisée). In Dalmatie, 'hMfiw, strong city (1) called 'to£énçiw by Ptolémée (2) and 'Ai^Tf/oc by Strabon (3). If our etymology of the word anda is right, the last of the three forms would be the best, because she answers rather exactly Albanian v^ehoupa. dwelling, wide. It is known that lesDalmates was a population illyrienne; Mr. Blau brings to their name that closer to Tih^ifs S of Lycie (4). Hahn already pointed out that in Albanian t&jttf” and ffhfjt.ova.fe mean shepherd (féhje ewe which is attached to £o.mj to advance. CP. the TrpôftaTw Greek). LED miniurn or Dalmion was the old capital of Dalmatie. Two places located in Épire, Aé^ivo and AsÀ/3/paja, bear the same name still today. Strabon besides ensures us that many herds of ewe fed in the plain of Dalmion (5).

The topic anda returns in the names of a city and a tribe of Pannonia: Andautonium (of anda and à<pr sufficient?) and Andizetes (of anda and black Çg?). However, Appien teaches us (6; that Pannoniens of the Romans were N “W “of the Greeks, and that they were of

(1) Dion. Case., 56,2

(2) Ptolémée, II, 17,2.

(3) Strabon, p. 261,54.

(4) Blau, Loco citato, p. 660.

(5) Strabon, T. VIII. CH v.

(6) App. Illyr., CH. xv.

race illyrienne. Homère (1) quotes the latter beside Cariens, of Lélèges, Caucons, and divine Pélasges among the allies of Troïens. According to Hérodote (2), they went down from Teucriens; according to Strabon (3), the Phrygian ones They lived the edges del' Axios, and as they are separate only by Dardaniens of the country of the Side noniens, the identity of the latter with Péoniens appears more than probable. Strabon (4) itself seems to regard Pannoniens as being of race illyrienne, since several tribes placed by him to Pannonia are considered by Pline (5), and Velleius Paterculus (6), like forming desDalmates part. However, we have just seen of which nationality were the Dalmatian ones.

^3. - Names formed with Anda.
Vénètes.

It is certain that the antique migration of the Albano-EP lasges did not stop there; by going up the coasts of the Adriatic, it met with the avant-garde of the Celts, with whom it mixed without merging with them. Japodes or Japydes which probably do not differ from Japyges, Cretois transplanted of Sicily in Italy, is with the eyes of Strabon mid- people

(1) Strab., X, v. 428.

(2) Hérodote, V, CH. xui.

(3) Strabon, VII, Epit. <4) Strabon, XIII, p. 314.

(5) Pline, Hist. nat, III, 22.

(6) Vell. Patercul., II, CH. cxv.

,

part Celtic Illyrien etmi-part. The mount Albi custom close which it is said to us that they are installed, appears to draw its name from a Celtic word. On the other hand names of the cities Av- endo. Senia and Tarsatica (alb. will go large, large), located on their territory are explained by Albanian (1).

Istrie was inhabited by people that Scymnus (about year 300) class among Thraces, that Justin (XXXII, 3) and Pline (Hist. Nat., III, 19) make come from Colchide, and in which Zeuss sees of Illyriens (2). It is certain that Thraces and Illyriens were often confused by the old authors, probably because one found them in many places mixed together. We notice that the river which separates Illyrie from Istrie calls Arsia, pointing out Arzen which runs with three miles in the south of Ty- ranna; that the town of Pœdicum reproduces the name of the ntifmhoi, tribe belonging to Peucétiens and Dau- niens come from Greece (3); that the town of Pola could draw its name from an Albanian word (noAiV^e-St, diminutive meaning rack); that Tergeste finally, Trieste of today is explained by the two Albanian words; for the third time all and yé (, IP joy or -, j-=rô” recreation. The name of this city is formed like that of Ségeste and Egeste, city of Sicily which like Entella and Eryx had been founded by Elymiens, tribe come from Troade according to the proper testimony of Thucydide (4). Let us not only forget

(1) CP. Strab., IV, 207; VII, 313,315.

(2) CP. Dieffenbach, Origins European, p. 71.

(3) Strab, p 277,279,282. - Dieffenbach, ibid, p. 96.

(4) Thucyde, VI, 2. It of Troïens was intermingled with Semites. Established in Sicily, we see them adopting Semitic worships and remaining the allies of the Carthaginians.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:47 am

the name of Ségeste still meets in Panno- denies (1), in Thesprotie, elsewhere still; that there was in Macedonia a canton called “f^vpei* with a city of the name of “EAu/xa. In Médie, finally, there was an area called 'Starch paste. Elymiens not being appreciably distinct from Troyens, are classified by us, like the latter, among Pélasges and the Breadth light.

It is time to return to the cities to which the old anda root gave its name. Such is the Andes, borough close to Mantoue, fatherland of Virgile. This borough was located not far from the occupied territory by Vénètes, and probably it will have formed part of it. At least it is easy to prove that Vénètes were Illyriens also, i.e. Pélasges, and that they had come by far. Their name is written Veneti OvéveToi, *E.veTot, 'Ecero;. It is Hérodote which allots a nationality illyrienne to them. (2) Polybe (3) declares that by their manners and their clothing, they resemble to the Celts, but that they differ from it by the language. Appien (4) the place beside Dardaniens and of Sintiens on the borders of Macedonia; an anonymity at Eustathe (5) in fact of the neighbors of the Tri balls. It is after having left these areas, that they would have occupied this corner of the Adriatic Sea, from where they would have expelled Euganéens, with which they had cepen-

(1) Strab., VIII, 5,313.

(2) Hérod., I, CH. 191.
/3) Polybe, II, CH. xvu.

(4) Beautiful. Mithr., C.I, v.

(5) Eustathe. AD H. II, 852.

dant their hero éponyme (joint EnetosJ (1). As for Strabon (2), it does not seem to have of opinion to him on their account; it reports that some attach them to Venedi of Armorique, while others reduce them from Heneti of Paphlago- denies. One interferes them with the great legend Troy; Pline (3l quotes Caton which had affirmed the origin troïenne of Vé- nètes. The fact is that the town of Patavium passed to be founded by Antenor; that, according to Ptolomée, there was second Patavium in Bithynie, a third in Norique (It. Anton.), without speaking about Pata- via which answers Passau, city of Bavaria. We do not claim to explain the well-known patavinitas whose Tite-Live had time so much to undergo the reproach, by the influence of the old idiom of Vénètes. But we will point out that there were in old Venezia some names of places whose Albanian returns account perfectly. Such is Brundulus Portas (auj. Bron- dolo), whose name points out that of Brundusium, as that of Japyges of large Greece points out that of Japydes established on the borders of Venezia. The direction of the name Brundusium (ûfensffiw), in which Strabon believed to recognize an indigenous word meaning head of stag (4), is explained by the situation of the city: the word appears to come from Albanian fyévfa. inside; fiférfeiffi interior.

>il Tite-Live, 1,1.
(2i Strabon, IV, v.
3) Hist. nat., 111,19: VI. 2.
(4) Stier brings closer the alb. drenni. stag,

We still find in Venezia the town of Adria whose homonym meets in Picenum, and from which the Adriatic Sea draws its name. One known as founded it by Tusci (Tosques of Albania?) If Albanian spoken in these distant times contained already some Slavic elements, as we think it, the name of Adria could come well from the old Slovenien adro oajadro meaning X.oat “sine husbands, or iiniw vélum (d). Let us not forget that the town of Spina, located at the mouth of Po, passed to be a pelasgic foundation, allotted in Diomède (2). But what is more important than these geographical notes - a name appellative of the antique language of Vé- nètes appears to be parvenu to us: Pline (3) maintains us a plant which the Romans called allium (garlic|, the Gallic halus oualus; according to Pline its name would be sil (probably the fféaixn Greeks) and Vénètes cotonea. Still today noractv means in albana S the upper part and esculente of the stem of cabbage apple.

Another word of the language of Vénètes appears to us to be transmitted by Columelle, which while speaking about the cows of Altinum, place located in Cisalpine and on the territory of Venezia, adds that the inhabitants of this area call these cows cevas. It points out that they are of small size and that they give much milk (4). Neither Altinum nor ceva is Celtic words.

(1) V. the Slovenien Dictionary of Miklosich.

(2) Pline. Hist. nat., III, CH. xvi.

(3) Pline, Hist. nat., XXVI. CH. considering. CP. Dieffenbach. European origins, p. 365.

(4) Çolum. VI. CH. xxvi: VII, CH. N. CP. Dieffenbach p 295.

On the other hand Na, plur. nje, means Albanian ox. As àAltinum, which one finds a homonym in the Side nonie where we already met other tribes illyriennes, it could be well made that it was faded of Ddtinum or Laltinum, thin layer or flagstone, dalte meaning in Albanian of curdled milk.

Let us say finally that Pomponius Mêla seems to indicate by the name of Lacus Venetus part of the lake of Constancy (1). The name of Vénètes can be brought closer either to favfi place, place, fatherland, or of $ov'<ny or fievu there I delay, I differ.

By thus grouping testimonys of the old authors, the searchs for our predecessors and the results of our own studies, we believe to have made very probable the origin illyrienne, Albanian of old Vénètes (2).

§ 4. - Names formed with Anda. Far AVest.

Singular thing. The cities and tribes whose names are formed with Anda are not by no means rare in old Gaulle. We find there of Andecavi or Andegavi (today Anjou, Angers) Ande- lonenses (inhabitants of a city of Vascons), Anderitum

(1) Mixed, III, CH. N

I, 2) CP. Hahn, p. 238, add: Burœa of bourr man. Codropio de Mfi hill. The Tilaventus river would point out Tiluvius of It lyrie.

city of Aquitaine, Andomatunum city of Gaulle Belgium. It is to be noticed that instead of Andecavi one says also the simply Andes, from where one formed an adjective: Andus, has, um. Finally there is an island of the name of Andium between Brittany and Gaulle, and the name of an old Goddess of Breton found in an inscription of Die: Andarta (I). This last name was brought closer to the word cymric Andras fury. As for the name of the island of Andium, one can with the rigour make it come from Gaelic: amde around, amdoi to surround, to wrap, in which case it would be necessary to compensate the idea of water or ocean. But in general one can affirm, that the Celtic idioms offer neither name nor verb which can give an account of the proper names of cities, or tribes containing the Anda syllables. It is not of the same of-Basque, language which undoubtedly was spoken, in high antiquity, on the two sides of the Pyrenees and probably in all the extent of Spain. One indeed finds in this last country a city of Bétique Anderisœ or Andorisœ; then a tribe of Tarra- knows; Andolagenses and another established with the foot of the Pyrenees; Andurenses (today Andorra). However, out of Basque Andia wants to say large, vast, Andréa rams noble; uria, iria the city; elea herd. The habitans of Anderisa and Andurenses would be consequently of Mégalopolitains and Andologenses perhaps of the owners of vast herds. But it is probable that Ibères occupied one day all Gaulle, that they

(1) Dieffenbach, p. 230.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:48 am

are seized the islands located opposite and close to England? And if, on a side, the names of Andéritum and Andolonenses approach singularly to Ando- logenses and Andurenses to Spain, show an Ibérique origin, and meet indeed in Aquitaine, inhabited formerly by Ibères; how to give an account of the names of Andecavi, Andomatunum, Andium finally? However, there existed in low Pannonia a Annamatia city. We do not believe to mislead us, by recognizing in this name that of the Gallic city of Andomatunum. The second part of the word is found in the name of a river of Albania: Subdue, and in those of a mountain and a city of the APU binds, Matinus and Matini. iïlâ.ae and bolt mean measurement; vâi&n ell, land-surveyor; Andomatunum would be: space measured, delimited. In Andecavi, the second part of the word is probably Albanian Ka, with the determining ending: Kaou. The direction of the name then could be only: country with the ox herds.

That to conclude from this linguistic research, undoubtedly still extremely incomplete, if it is not that old Pélasges crossed the Alps, saw themselves stopped by Ibères, on a side, and that other they ended up mixing and merging with the Gallic ones, whose migration appears to have been posterior with their of long series of centuries.

But is it of course, that Ibères had energy wanted to bar the way of Spain to the immigrants of North and the East? What we know of Celtibères, born mixture of Ibères and Celts, would tend to make us believe the opposite. The names of the cities formed with the Gallic ending briga abound in Spain, and though the first part of these names often contains proper names Romains, it is difficult not to admit, that the inhabitants of these cities were not Celtes at least partly. Only let us quote: Deobriga Lacobriga, Juliobriga, Segobriga, Mirobriga, Latobriga, Talabriga, Langobriga, etc

However, it is undeniable that one meets in Spain a series of names which have a seal absolutely Albanian illyrienet, such as: Colenda, Have-endo; Budua, which points out Butua of Epire and Butuntum of Appulie. One can perhaps add the rather many Ba names such as: Norba, Onoba, Salduba? But what is undoubtedly more serious, it is that the name of the town of Andorra like that of Andorisa, that we made come from the Basque, is explained just as easily by Spanish, where andorro wants to say wandering, wandering. The syllables anda, which out of Basque answer only one small number of concepts, express in Spanish, in Portuguese Italian the idea of the movement, of walk. - Instead of andar, the Catalans and Provençaux said anarchist, the Of Vaud anarchist, Lombards anà - we say outward journey. It is in vain that one eiforcé oneself to make come this andar from Latin ambulare or a ambitare who existed forever, or of adi- tare, very-rare word and which presents a more or less different direction. By supposing that andar comes from adi- tare, like returning reddere, how to explain, that this transformation took place in all the countries néo-Latin at the same time, that in Spain, Italy and France one thought of this same verb aditare to make of it the substitute of old and too short anger. Andar not being neither Gallic, neither Basque, nor Latin, must have drawn its origin either from a tudesque language, or of a pelasgic antique idiom. For the tudesque one the name of the Andalusia province seems to militate which owes its name to the Vandals, (the vagrants). But the fall of v initial German is a so rare thing in the néo-Latin languages, that Diez could discover one example moreover, it is the Spanish word impla, (veil) German wimpel. Moreover, the Germanic people did not appear before the fifth century in the Iberian peninsula. It thus becomes probable that the Albanian verb vfévia was carried by Pélasges or Illyriens in all the countries of Western Europe traversed by them at one time former perhaps to the seat (hardly historical) of the town of Troy (1).

§ 5. - Ending |3o, (3>? , (3 “.

This ending is used to form a series of names very few, but very old, of which it clarifies the origin

(1; We will add to the examples of cities, whose names finish in anda, enda, inda, the explanation of the following names:

Kalinda (in Ylepaici of Rhodos) of kalja-ja; Kouenda (strong castle; do fortress beyond Cilicie), of nâiy, I stuff? Dasmenda (citadel in Cappadoce, a little beyond Halys), or of dasme- ja beloved, or better of fjofffjiéct mint (the plant of this name).

Amblada for Amblanda (N was cut off because of labial from the first syllable), place in Pisidie, celebrates by a wine of a medicinal use, soft àft^etje, or with. 'àf^ehi>iy I heat. and it direction. They are the names of AépGn, 'ApiVÊw, 0/o-E”,

eiiCa.i, AvfÊ”, AsVe<! F, “Iff6of, and probably àeT^svMGa. and of

'K.a.vSvÇ.a. The ending does not appear Greek, but to be

the remainder of the Albanian word @evf, which means place, fatherland.

Let us start with most distant from these places, with Derbé located in Lycaonie, not far from Isaurie and of Cappadoce. Kiepert believed to find it in ruins that one sees on the side of Taurus close to the lake Ak-Goel, not far from the narrow passages which lead in Cilicie. We recognize in the first syllable of Derbé the word fépe-a., carries. The direction of the name would be: the place of the door, the procession. Indeed still today fe' pGév wants to say ravelled in Albanian.

“isCoi, city located in Isaurie, presents the same direction as “l<w<Ta, 'Iffiwfa., and probably that the names of Isaura the old one and Isaura the news. Because Isaura is formed like Garsaura, city of Cappadoce. The two words were probably said for Ifa-ovpa., Ta.pffA-ovpa, and they point out Kàpovpa, A.vy.t>s<ivpa. Ovpét in these words wants to say guard, i.e. advanced and strengthened station. Indeed, Isaura the news is called evepabi, (strengthened borough) by Strabon. - Isaurie appears to have been with the eyes of its first inhabitants the country, the guard of the light. Isa is an old Albanian word of which the children are still useful themselves, and whose direction is: light; the clean word for light in this idiom is drit (1).

(1) Vincenzo Dorsa, Studi etymologici untied lingua albanese. Co senza, 1862, p. 69: The voce isa pressed gli Albanesi E antiquata E if the USA unicamente dai fanciulli, etc - CP. remainder for the direction of the word Isaurie, the names of Lycaonie and Lycie.


I

Aûp6” points out initially b.vç-mfffot, one of the three cities having belonged to Lélèges in Troade, then the Ler-Na lake and borough in Argolide. In the Albanian language Aj “p “wants to say dirtiness, mud; Ajrjjos to splash, dirty. These places thus appear to have drawn their name from the muddy ground where they were established. That would agree not only with the direction which one allots to the town of Pedasa (for Pegasa the supercilious one) but still with the tradition which makes seek in old Pélasges the grounds of alluvium close to the rivers.

This last observation applies according to any appearance in the name of the city celebrates &nSa.i (béot. ®ii$a.t), built not far from the southernmost end of the lake 'ta/kji, in a plain (the Aonius campus) sprinkled by Asopos, Jsmenos and Dircé; plain which was to be often under water before carried out work of drain, in Béotie, by Phéniciens. Those had set up a citadel, Cadmée, on the wooded hills which bordered this plain. It is with the foot of this hill that was born and that developed the town of Thèbes later. It was however rather far away from the lake not to have not to suffer from the floods which it could cause while overflowing. Indeed, Albanian Sà/j wants to say I dry. ©” /3a/, would be “the drier”

Homère mentions already small town of Thisbé, and it indicates it by a pretty epithet: yro^vTpHfav, the city with the many doves. The Albanian etymology, if it were right, would point out on the contrary it in iïoiaria., the word &, S/ou in this meaning idiom

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:49 am

pig. 0/<r£ “/or 0iW “, would be Nordhausen of Béotie; it would be the city with the many pigs.

Aéff&of appears to come from will ^jura tree, or even of Aj=f teases, by supposing that the island was remarkable by the pupil of the ewes. - 'ApiVCii was the name of a small town located in the island even of Lesbos; it made place later with Methymne (1); “Ap/9$ “that of an affluent of Hébros. There was finally a borough of Arisbé on the edges of Selléis not far from Abydos in Troade. It is known that very close to Abydos the gold mines of Astyra (comparezAstoret, Astarté) were, exploited by the dynasty of Priam. Arisbé which belonged to the same district could thus * mean the country of gold,” especially if Arisbé of Troade were the metropolis of the other (rear wants to say I gold” in Albanian). Moreover the word “gold” could be taken with the illustrated direction.

TeV<f “(3* is indicated to us like an old city of Asia. The name of the first syllable is perhaps contained in the last word of the Albanian phrase; “nae tv£e Ts pipe ^iv^t whose direction is: made good voyage. Tti/fe* or vavS' ea. mean pastoral shelter, fold.

Kavfvtïa. is a city of Lycie de Jhwt-sj strokes, escarpé edge. That one compares KéwJW*, city of the Decay; Ka.vfa.pa., city of Paphlagonie; Ka.v<? &ovict, countered montueuse of Illyrie, and perhaps K “tc<f<W, one of the names of God Mars.


(1) The name of the town of Methymne seems to be of origin phenician and to come from the same root as the name of T “ty/tW (, city of Eubée. In Hebrew ^IQU wants to say: to hide, |CUD store under ground, hiding-place.

Finally would Artemis Bfc<Ti'$, Artemis of Thraces, adored later in Athens (already of the time of Plato), be other thing that indigenous, national Artemis?

§ 6. - Skipetars (swcÉt>j) and Dardaniens, Teucer. - Termiles, Tramélé, Trambelos,

, T/3W£ç, ToojÇw, Millet.

So instead of us to place in the center of the Lélégie antique,

in Andanie, we choose now for point of

departure the time when we live, we will notice

that the Albanians are called today themselves

Skipetars. One tried to attach this name to

verb sxjnraiy I include/understand; ffniverctp would be thus that

who includes/understands what one says to him, i.e. the COM

patriot. One compared the Greek words o-Hairos then,

“oiflw and awTn' custom (the lightning which falls). But if one it

bring closer to two other words which resemble to him with

less as much as the precedents, of ffxj: Q? spt eagle and

of a-.jiToi' vulture, it will be difficult to separate it from

<r “'/x|2i, to axeir, ax.iv rock, especially if it is considered that it

“KpTepi is called also Albanian rrerpn, word which appears

us to bring back straight to Greek T6T/> “rock. The Ski

petars was called consequently as Xylander has it

vait already thought, inhabitants of the rocks, mountain dwellers.

One could admit the conjecture of Hahn thus,

allotting a word game to Pyrrhus in the answer

that he addressed to his Epirotes which greeted it nickname of eagle, when he had returned victorious from the battle, “C It is thanks to you, says he, that I am an eagle. How it would be differently, since it is supported by your weapons, as by fast wings, that I sprang in the airs. ” If this sentence should not mean this: Skipetars, i.e. same eagles you, you made ego an eagle, it does not mean absolutely anything (1).

If Skipetars are mountain dwellers, if it is necessary to attach their name to the word skep, skip rock, one can group around this last various proper names, which would find their explanation thus naturally. Such are SxoÛto/, city located in the Messiah and pertaining to Dardaniens, indicated by Anna COM tit under the name You. 2xÔT/a; then 2x “4 “, troïenne city located on the Ida mount; Scopades, dynasty illustrates of Thessalie; finally especially attic of Eutsth denies it, whose name actually cannot be explained using a Greek root. Zutér”, indeed, appears to be a form more modern than swTêTu (CP. £/cj> “for miqos). However Strabon (2), as well as Etienne de Byzance, affirms that this last bore formerly also the name of Troy and according to Phanodème quoted by Denys d' Halicarnasse (3), this dème would have been the fatherland of king Teucer who would have left from there to settle in Troade. Hahn makes come the name from Dardaniens, of those of the Messiah as well as of those of Mysie, of the Albanian word £a.fîs the pear, and that of Teucer de Senepéa, barley, undoubtedly remembering that them

(1) Hahn, p. 230. Plutarque, Pyrrhus, C. wine.

(2) Strabon, XIII, 604,34. (3J Denys d' Halic., I, 61.

inhabitants of the Attic praised themselves to have been the first of the Greeks to cultivate the ground and to make him produce fruits. We are obliged to make reserves about these etymologies; but we let us not note of it less the identity of the names and probably of the populations, at one time moved away enough, in the Attic and other cantons of Greece on a side, and in Troade of the other. Doesn't Dardanus, according to antiques traditions, pass for the son of Zeus and Electra, emigrant of Greece (of others say of Arcadie), in Samothrace initially, in Troade then, there to found Dar- dania? Moreover, the same names of cities and rivers are found as well in Troade as in the Attic and other cantons of Greece. The name of the citadel dTlion, T<i Népya.fMt is explained extremely well using Albanian. Uepyj'^y wants there to say I observe of in top, I épie, I make the guet, vefytJ.éjx speculated. Note that a place of Pamphylie, Uépyn, seems to draw its name from an extremely raised hill, where a temple of Artémis was perched. In the Attic, finally, we find the dème of Hipyo.™” or ne^ya.™, which belonged to the tribe of Erechthée.

The name Ilion was explained formerly by us using Hebrew] vSs deus supremus. Today, that we familiarized ourselves with Albanian, we cannot dissimulate, that in this language it and yes mean star, and that one met in Albania itself, in the south of the town of Bérat, two small towns of the name of Ilion. There was a small river of the name of Selléis close to Arisbé, in Troade (1); one

(1) Iliad., II, v.839.

river close to Sicyon, another in Elides, and a third in Epire, close to Kichyros (Ephyra), bore the same name. There was in Troade a city of the name à' Hyamion pointing out Hyameia of the My sénie. Here one could perhaps think of a colony founded after the catch of Troy. It will not be the same name of the town of Perperène, located into full Mysie, which is certainly the same word as the albao. Ksp-Trjépe escarpée, abrupt descent. It is that there was, indeed, close to this city of the copper mines. We thus identify the name of the Ionian city of Priéné with Albanian /3p” j= “coast, hill, cliff. But the name which takes place to astonish us more in this small territory of Troade, it is undoubtedly that of Thèbes, identical or about to that of the capital antique of Béotie. One distinguished Thèbes in Egypt, though this name does not have anything Egyptian, and 0 more”|3 “Ti a.i $btani£es, in Thessalie. Thèbe of Mysie was called &n$n' TVoTAsocjt”. It was located at the foot of the Ida, in the south, not far from Pergamos. Homère teaches us that Eétion, king of Ciliciens, reigned there and that it was devastated by Achille. Indeed, Ciliciens, Lydians and Mysiens disputed this plain of Thèbes, where still the towns of Chrysé and Lyrnessos were. Finally Strabon maintains us Thèbe (© “£ “), located in Pamphylie oulaLycie, between Attalie and Phasèles, founded by of Ciliciens expelled of Thèbe of Troade. We already mentioned above than the origin of the name of all Thèbes was explained without effort by Albanian. Is necessary it to still mention Scamandre, running near

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:52 am

from Troy, and its homonym sprinkling the campaigns of the town of Egeste or Ségeste, located in Sicily. It is true, as we mentioned above, that this city passed itself to be founded by of Troïens fugitive. But to forget can-us that Egeste is presented to us as chief of Thesprotes, and that the Teas foremen, according to Etienne de Byzance, were called

The primitive population of Troade thus appears to have belonged to the pelasgic race. It is yet only one probability. Eh well, let us leave for one moment this ground celebrated so much by the poets; let us collect testimonys that Pélasges and Lélèges left of their existence on other points of Greece and theMinor one; they will be able to provide us new and convincing evidence character pelasgic of the antiques inhabitants of Troade.

Millet and Termites.

There existed formerly in the part of Crete inhabited by Pélasges and Etéocrètes, - these two names seem to indicate the same population, - a city which had name Milet and which was destroyed later by those of Lyktos (or Lyttos). According to the fable, Miletos would have been a beautiful young man, that the three wire of Europe would have disputed: Semi our, Rhadamanthe and Sarpédon. Minos expelled his/her two brothers like Miletos, and this last flees in the Decay and founded there the city which was to bear its name. Minos being, as one knows today, the symbol of the power phenician in Egée, the myth seems to mean, than the Semites having occupied with considerable forces most of the island, a certain number of Pélasges and Etéocrètes were obliged to emigrate. We know pertinently, that Mi- let, at the time when the Ionian ones conquered the city, belonged to Lélèges (1); one showed there still a long time their tombs, the ruins of their castle-forts and their dwellings. - We believed to formerly recognize in Milet a Semitic city of origin, drawing its name from the same verb as the goddess Mylitta (lS* to give birth to). But, today that we were brought to identify Lélèges and the Albanians, it is in an Albanian word that we believe with more reason to find the explanation of the name of the famous city. In Albanian Milet wants to say people, tribe. This word admittedly is asserted by Doctor Blau for the Turkish language. However, the Albanian language contains other words having similar significances; such are: n$e>jîfe assembly; then ppjé>a. seeds, sowing, of [j.$ie> or ^] Îk I sow, I plant. At all events, by /j.ih é7i 'Zx.jt' Treftoe, one designates still today the people of Skipétars.

Another part of the indigenous population of Crete, led by Sarpédon, which would have been more particularly attached to Milétos (2), would have been established in Lycie and would have, with the assistance of Kilix, driven back Solymes,

(1) Strabon, p. 542,1. 29.

(2) Preller, II, p. 81.

Semitic tribe, towards Pisidie, by occupying the beautiful valley that sprinkled Xanthos. These Etéocrètes were called themselves Termiles (1); it is only later that they would have taken the name of Lyciens, which would have come to them from Lycos, wire of Pandion, king d' Attique (2). Hécatée, Panyasis and Etienne de Byzance call Lycie whole Tpê/*/A”, according to Tremylos, which, with saying of Etienne de Byzance, would have been the father of Tlos. There existed moreover in the island of Cyprus a borough having name Tfi {ji.iSovs (permutation of has and 5?) In inscriptions lycians published by Fellows, one finds the names of Tramêlé and Trooes (Troyens) of which the first are regarded by him as inhabitants of the town of Xanthos and its surroundings, others like those of the town of Tlos. Tlos and Tros are identical. The same names, as one sees, are repeated in Lycie and with the foot of the Ida mount.

One can only be struck resemblance of the second part of the name of Termiles to that of the big city of Millet. We indeed attach one and the other to the verb ppie*. or pfcjé*. I sow, I plant. For the third time, ground wants to say in Albanian nowadays: all, whole. Ter- miles of the Greeks would be thus the whole seedling, the large one of the clan of Lélèges of Crete. But the collective adjective for the third time, ground appears to have been prone to the méthatèse of p, since beside the form TeftuiA “Ci we find that older of the Tramêlé inscriptions. However, there existed

(1) Hérod., T, 173; IV, 92.

(2) Strabon, p. 490,1. 50.

in Achaïe a city of the name of Tpn/tlheia, which enjoyed a singular celebrity: she produced of excellent goat's milk cheese. This TpapiMia. we appears identical, or about, in Tramêlé. But for the third time, will go, ilo being only alternatives of the same word, nothing does not prevent from bringing closer this last to Tlos, Troja, Troes. The signifi- .cation of the word Tp*v “, Trojani would be Allemanni, all the men, the whole community. Doesn't dansl' Om- Brie, the word tota (Latin totus, you to increase, inflate) have the direction of city, i.e. meeting of all the members of the city?

Recall-us, that if there were a Tpapi^eia borough. in Achaïe, there was a Troy into full Attic; that these names existed in Europe as well as in Asia. There is better: the advantage if one can express oneself thus, appears to be side of Europe here. Athens from time immemorial maintained the friendliest relations, closest with the town of Trézène (Tpo/Çw). These two cities were Ionian; Trezene passed for the native place of Thésée. Both had for owner the Athéné goddess, and a Neptune owner; the old currencies of Trézène show the head of Minerve and the three-pronged fork. When Doriens invaded the Peloponnese, part of Trézéniens found a asyle in the Attic. When Xerxès burned Athens, the inhabitants of this city transported the majority of their wives and their children in Trézène. However, the word Tpo; Çtic, if it means something, can mean only Troy lapetite. The Albanians indeed form their female diminutives by the ending &, for example: <Tope hand, fopiÇe small hand,

a handle; x.me head, n<>x.eÇa, small head; net*, a little, wtfÇs, a little bit, etc

Let us not forget, that Trézène has as a KshévS~spi< port, name whose etymology is also in the Albanian idiom, and which the Troy attic was only another name for Xypété, word in which we recognize the name which the most ancient race of Greece and Eastern Europe preserves still today.

Finally the primitive form of the name of the colonists Cretois de Lycie receives a bright confirmation of that of a king desLélègesTpà/^SnAof, quoted by Athénée (1) etLycophron (2). (The 2 whose l'/u is followed higher justifies the explanation provided by us. This Trambélos is called by Lyco- phron the proper cousin of Teucros, wire of Télamon and He sione. In the presence of this note the doubts are erased: in Lycie, in Troade, Crete, At tick, as much of other parts of Greece, one met at one unmemorable time a population primitive, identical, speaking only one and even language, and this language was Albanian or resembled to him (3).

Here arises an incidental question. How Teucros, wire of Télamon and half-brother of Ajax, which fought beside the Greeks with the head office of Troy, can-it to bear the same name as another Teucros, wire of Sca- mandre (the river) and of the nymph Idœa (the Ida mount)

(1) Athenaeum, II, 43.

(2) Lycophron, v. 467.

. (3) One can wonder whether Tpà//.TM, town of Ionie and TpàfOTfst, town of Epire are not attached to the same word group as Tramèlé and Trambélos.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:53 am

and what Apollon calls most former king d' Ilion? Indeed the name of Teucriens is regarded by the poets posthomeric as the equivalent of Troïens (1). According to Strabon, Teucriens would have been inhabitants of Crete; they would have emigrated about it to be fixed in Troade. According to another tradition, it is Teucros of the Troy attic which would have led them in Mysie. These are the fabulous traditions or so much is not very historical, which go, I believe, us to deliver the word of the enigma. In the city Cretoise de Milet, the primitive population, worried by a stronger race, the ground yielded and emigrated. It was the same in Salamine. The island had been colonized by Phéniciens initially; they had given him a Semitic name; they had lived in peace beside the former inhabitants, Lélèges, who appear to have undergone their ascending without murmuring. A race of north occurred, the Greeks, Pélasges if one wants. They were regarded soon as the Masters and treated the former owners of the ground like a lower race. For this reason Teucros is not called the true brother of Ajax, but his brother only on the side of the father. He thus emigrated, as his/her Millet brothers had emigrated, and he led his companions in the island of Cyprus, in this other Salamine, which probably, with his name, had given the first lessons of a life more civilized to the Greek small island.

(1) Hérod, VII, C. 122

§ 7. - Olympes.

If one applies to the names of the mountains the observations which were suggested to us by the names of so many cities, one arrives at results similar to those already obtained. The most famous mountain, most venerated former Greeks was Olympe. When it differently was not determined, one understood by there the chain which separates Macedonia from Thessalie. But the scoliaste of Apollonius quotes of it a certain number of others which bear the same name. There was initially second well-known close to Olympie, in Elides; there was a third in Mysie, which of Hermos extended until Bithynie; a fourth in Lycie, whose Strabon would like to distinguish a fifth located in Cilicie (1); finally a sixth in the island of Cyprus with a temple of Aphrodite 'kx.pa.iu. What to conclude from all these homonymies, if it is only the race, which indicated thus by the same name of the so different mountains, were the same one, and that she lived all the regions where these mountains was located? However the word “oau/uto? explained forever, that we know, using a Greek etymology. In the vocabulary of Xylander is the Albanian word ovMov [j.wep with the significance of arc or circle. If we consider now that there was in Samos a Kegierevs mount, and that one met of Ke? X. “T/ct 'EFF “in the north of the high valley of the Pennate one; if us

(1) Strabon, p. XIV, 666,667.

let us add to it that X.iÇkos, Albanian xjâfx-and, plural Italian cerchio, have the same direction as Albanian as the concepts of mountain and roundness enough approach; we will perhaps not be dared too much by affirming that Olympe was before a a whole Albanian mountain and lélège.

§ 8. - The different word Lycos and its directions. Lycie, Lycaonie, Lycaon, Pisidie, Cob.

Names of the people, cities, mountains and rivers which contain the old Mr. root: and which is widespread in almost all the cantons of Greece, in Crete and theMinor one, present to us one of the most curious problems and most difficult to solve. Let us quote the names of Ayxof, \ vx.iot, h.vx, a.w (opos), Awcôa, Awcoffaupct, Auxàer, Avx.tos, AvxaffTo*, Avjcwf£/“£, taatiffuUf etc One knows for a long time that these words are not sufficiently explained by the word Kvkos wolf, and why, when the Greeks claimed to indicate by Apollon Awce70? , the god who destroys the wolves (^.vmut' wos Sêw), they were easily deceived of a false etymology. It is known that Apollon at the old ones was especially a god of the light; that the Greeks had called the light lux formerly, exactly like Latin. Moreover, words At” dawn, Mx.Ô.$u.s year, Avx*|2 “TToy, name of a mountain of the Attic, are taken of it. According to that kvitôpeia., city located on the southern point of the Parnassus, and AvxoVsu/: *, city built below the top of the College in Arcadie, would be the places where shows itself earliest, where stops longest, sun, i.e. they would be in the direction of old, of the observatories; the mount itself was devoted to the god of the light. But is it also true that Avx. /gc means the country of the sun? Undoubtedly, according to an antique tradition, A.pollon was supposed to be transported there when the weather started to be cold in Greece, i.e. to the first breath of each winter. The god had a famous oracle with Patara. It is known (I) that the Sibyls of this place, like those of Cyme, EP dasos, Gergis were of institution Semitic; IflS means to prophesy in Hebrew. The name of Pinara, another important city of Lycie, can be explained using the same language, HJ£y meaning strengthened tower. Xanthos which sprinkles Lycie and which runs close to villeportant the same name, was called formerly aveude Strabon S//>/3wî (2). However, Zirba meaning in Arabic and a reddish yellow phenician, the name of E<w3 “would have been only the translation of an old indigenous name (3). The indeed entire country appears to have been occupied in a high antiquity by Semites, by of Solymes probably (Sallum staircase). Etienne de Byzance teaches us in truth that tla.Ta.pc T. wanted to say Mvtk small basket, which makes think of Latin will pay. In the Ly- inscriptions

(1) Duncker, III, p. 328.

(2) Strabon, XIV, 665.

(3) One can compare the name of a lake located close to the Kasios mount, in Egypt, not far from the Mediterranean and which has name “

or ^ifiorifos Ktj-vn or

cians, Patara was called Pttarazu, Pegasa: Begssere! Thus Pinara would draw its name from a rock with conical form, which one claims to have found the site; because vivctf>a, in the idiom of Tramêlê would have the same direction as <npoyyvKa. In current Albanian one meets only Ti' owce corner. Can one compare the Greek eqw, cuneus? - In this town of Pinara, one adored as Pandaros hero, wire of Lycaon which, itself was wire of Priam. The name of this Pandaros seems to mean in Albanian: that which does not change, constant, of meaning Pa will sansetndara difference, change. We met in Lycie a mount of the name of Olympe; there were two others of them, Cragos and Anticragos. However, in Albanian x-pà-^e wants to say shoulders, wing, xpà^ac/comb, picturesque designation to indicate the profile of the mountains.

But how is it made that we precisely find in Asia Mineure these names of Lycie, Lycos and Lycaon, that one meets elsewhere in Greece and in particular in Arcadie? Lycaon passed to be the son of Pélasgos, to have based the town of Lycosoura and the Jupiter Lycien worship like that of Mercury on Cyllène. The fifty wire of Lycaon reigned in all the boroughs of the canton, that no bond linked before the medium of IVe century (1).

A sentence of the historian of old Lélèges, Philippe de Théangèle (2), fortunately parvenu until

(1) Duncker, III, p. 22,23.

(2) Philippe deThéang. - yrep} Kctçav x.tù Ae^éjwv fragm. 3, in Mûller Fragm., Hist. grœç., IV, p. 474.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:54 am

we, throws a little clearness on the obscure question which occupies us. It calls the aïeux ones of the two large tribes which constituted the Lélège nation: Lycos and Ter- meros. If this Termeros had preserved intact its antique denomination, it would be necessary to explain of it the origin by the two Albanian words for the third time all and reflect good, beautiful. But this Termeros appears only one alternative of the people of Ter- miles. It is what comes out from a passage of Hécatée brought back by Etienne de Byzance; Tpe^/A”, Té^epa. - O - ^ptuf^f with nave} ctvTovs Mtoe (À.ehéa, S.A., \ novf a/nsi (1). On the coast of the Decay between Myndos and Halicarnasse, on the headland of Termerion was located, said one, a castle-extremely in which the Tyrrhéniens pirates would have hidden the men removed on the coasts of Greece. The prisoners were treated there so hard, that the expressions of rspfMpiai. KctKÔ. and of rvppwoi £tapoi became proverbial (2). Termeros being a name lélège, the Tyrrhenian ones, partly at least, had to belong to the same nationality.

The name of Lycos representing a so great part of the race of Lélèges, at the same time explains us up to a certain point the origin of the cities Cretoises de Lyktos and Lykastos, cities which belonged obviously to the oldest population of the island. The formation of the two names agrees with what one knows of Albanian grammar. (One finds there At} adjectives - T “and words in -. But Lykos passes

(1) Termeros is called Termeris by Schol, AD Euripid. Rhes., v. 505.

(2) Duncker, III, 392,

also to have been the founder of the mysteries of Andanie, which were the mysteries of the large Goddesses to which came to join Mercure Kriophoros and Apollon Karneios and even Cabires (1). Another legend makes of Lykos Telchine of Rhodos, wire of Leuco- thée, which would have transported the worship of the Lycien Apollo in the country of Termiles. But the tradition which has course generally made of Lykos a brother of this Egée, which, putative father of Thésée and later husband of Médée girl of Eète, can be regarded as the aï' eul of the first great Ionian dynasty which reigned in the Attic. If Lykos is expelled by his/her Egée brother, if it goes to Termiles, if the latter end up being called according to luiLycians, it is that Lykos was obviously of this race of Termiles, of Lélèges; it is that this tight race of near by the Greek immigrants, started to release foot and to take refuge in the regions where plain with of the same tribes family, it was possible for him to preserve her independence. The destiny of Lykos, brother of Egée points out too that of Teucros, brother of Ajax, so that one is not been willing to give him the same explanation.

However, it is to be noticed that in current Albanian at least root MX. is not with the direction to light, to resplendir. On the other hand, one finds ijexjér-i there the lake; ^ja.yjév-i jug with wine; ^ja.yers wet; *jx.ty I bathe, finally ^jwx. - yov gutter, channel; and Kjovtâi small source, pipe. However, the worship of the sources was general in Lycie: it is found, in Arycanda, in Myra, àXanthos,

(1) Bachofen, das lycische Volk, p. 57 and suiv.

in Olympus, Cyanée, Skaroi, elsewhere still (1). Moreover, the old geography shows us a series of rivers bearing the name of Lykos. There is in Syria and in Sarmatie European; there are some who are tributary Tiger in Assyrie, Meander in Phrygie, of the Iris in Arménie and the Bridge; there is also in Paphlagonie which is thrown in the Euxine Sea, close to Héraclée; there was finally in Etolie a Lycormas river, which was called Evénus later. If we exclude the rivers which run in countries inhabited by Semites, there remains about it always four or five pertaining to regions which were traversed a long time by Lélèges, and which higher find an explanation in the Albanian words quoted by us.

That to conclude from all this research, if it is not that we deal here with two series of proper names, of which one is explained better by a root With. lucere, and another by a root MX, liquere, rigare. It is to be noticed however that these two roots singularly approach one the other in the Indo-European languages; that MvkÔs in Greek as well says sun as of water, than Latin lucus appears to be a covered place of trees where a source runs; that in Hebrew even yy means at the same time eye and source, not as it claims Gesénius, because the eye produces tears, but because the eye as water reflects the image that one presents to him. The verb *in J wants to say at the same time to run (confluere)

(1) Bachofen, p. 16.

and to resplendir; YOU mean river, and nTH light of day. If one thinks then that the name of Arcadien Lycaon returns in the family of Priam and even in that of LycienPandaros; that he repeats himself in that of the province of Lycaonie; that not far from there we meet Pisidie and a Hiffitis city in Pérée of Rhodos; that this name could not be completely distinct from that of the region and the town of Cob in Elides, and of its colony in Italy; that all these names of Pisilis, Cob and of Pisidie come from ntat-a. pine, i.e., draw their origin from the forests of pines and fir trees which distinguished these trimmings; one wonders whether there would not exist a close connection between Greek Lycaon and Asian Lycaonie. One finds whereas Lycaonie forms the central plate of theminor one, like Arcadie that of Pélo- ponèse; that the two rather dissimilar countries under other points of view, are clean especially with the pastures, and a life of nomads; that both are located at the foot of the highest tops, and are consequently highly lit by the sun. But if the mountains are natural observatories, they give birth at the same time to the sources of the rivers. One meets there in abundance water and the light; the undeniable fact for Arcadie with regard to Lycaonie is covered less partly with steppes and deserted lonelinesses. One however finds there Iconium one of the oldest places of the history, and more considerable, before the foundation of Mégalopolis, that none the small boroughs of Arcadie. The Greeks were mistaken besides by admitting that Arcadie had been always inhabited by the same inhabitants. There, in their European fatherland as everywhere they had been preceded by an older population. They were undoubtedly not Phéniciens which would have liked to penetrate so front in the grounds; - but they was well Lélèges which had borrowed from the Semites some their worships, inter alia that of cruel Moloch, since they sacrificed children to Jupiter Lycien, use which appears to be introduced by legendary Lycaon (4). One is not unaware of that the Greeks detested the human sacrifices, that they abolished them early or late everywhere where they met them, and which when they speak about it in their mythical traditions, one see by the proper names, the details and the circumstances of which these accounts are surrounded, that these sacrifices had been instituted by other races that theirs (2).

There are besides in Arcadie some names of rivers and cities which the Greek language is not enough to explain, and of which some are certainly of pure Albanian, for example: SoujUctT/a which is other thing only swfjiéria. press of people or fw^ri” ugliness. Qûaveta. point out roKÎ-a. dry land or T “c-^oupli; Ai/À” makes think of tfwiji the flower, and Au/x “£, one of the rivers of Arcadie, points out the Albanian words Kjo-j^s river, and KJw [j.a.KJe connects parasite. Finally Arcadie, this ground that one

(1) The Greeks told that it had been changed into wolf (mx.cs) to have tasted the human flesh. Paus., VIII, 2. Plato, Républ., VIII, 566, D.

(2) Duncker, III, 67.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:54 am

we said closed during long series of centuries to any foreign influence, is to have been in relation to Asia Mineure at one almost prehistoric time. It is known that the family tree of Dardanus is presented to us in several ways. The tradition the most complete Dardanus place in Arcadie and in fact a son of Jupiter and of Electra, girl of Atlas and a brother of Iasion and Armonia. Accompanied by this brother and his son Idalos (cpr. the name of the Ida mount); - its other Deimas wire remaining in Arcadie, - it emigrated and is established initially in Samothrace where it is accomodated by driven Phénicien Cad-, and where it marries or removes Harmonia; from there it goes in Troade, at Teucer of which it marries the Bcneta girl. (fcctTÎa. bush of spines).

The grand' father of Enée itself is Kapys, and according to Strabon, the Kapyœ borough, located not far from Mantinée, had Enée for founder. Finally Apollodore quotes as brother of Enée Lyros whose name points out that of the Lyrnessos cities, Lerna, etc One knows finally that Dar- danie was the name of a canton of Troade skirting Hellespont, extending from Dedicated to Skepsis and having had for king Enée. The town of Dedicated finally passed to be inhabited by Amazones and to have been the seat of an oracle, circumstance which seems to indicate Semitic influences (limited, the ombreuse city of ^X to be shaded, shade, or “If to request. (Cpr. zi, which in Albanian means black.)


§ 9. - Albanians, Lélèges and Lyciens according to Dr. Blau.

We will not follow Doctor Blau in the many bringings together which it establishes between the Albanian language and some Iranian idioms, if founded which can be its opinion about the relationship which links with the latter the language of Skipétars. For us the great difficulty rather consists in giving an account of the major differences which separate it and give him a so original seal. We will not try either to check, if Doctor Blau succeeded in identifying the words and the forms of the language lycian, such as the inscriptions make known them to us with the words and the shapes of current Albanian. We are persuaded that here still Doctor Blau saw just, but we regard his attempt as premature; it will be time to start again it when we know a greater number of monuments of the Lycie antique. It is a country, appears it, where very preserved itself well a long time, the names especially. That of Tramêlé lives still today in the name of a small place called Dirmil. Beside the Greek name of Xan- thos lasted the old name à' Arna (of “fva. part, end of fabric, perhaps with the direction of borough, like German Fleckenj. There was a dirtied city of the same name in the Teas, Béotie and even in Ombrie. Later the name of Arsinoë, imposed by Ptolémées, could not erase that of Xanthos; nor that Antiphellos to make disappear that from Habassos, primitive name of this last city (1).

Doctor Blau (2), resting on Fallmerayer pointed out that just as the citadel of Chimara and the points of Parga and Suli were from time immemorial the refuges, the impregnable asyles of Albanian independence, in the same way the Lycie antique offers a triad of frightening fortresses to us: Chimaira, Perge and Syllion (yjfjMços the goat, the goat, because it climbs on more the high mountains; Pergé is compared with Tréçynuoset Trepypéjti, Syllionà “vAJT (7/-ipoutretransversale, bolt). Ta.ya.Ki, stripes (hunters?) ou' ttyvytoi of Lycie sontdevenus Téyne, Guégeoisde Albania (CP. also Ti/ym and family names Gheghai, Gegainus, Latin Géganius). Has them “/? af ““of the Decay will not be quite distinct from Lapes, of Aja|SêfÊTeî neighbors of Guégois. The procession of Kâfwcosen Lycie points out the Albanian word yçvue (narrow passage in the mountain); the places Aà.pvpa and Mpvpa. the Albanian district Lamare (CP. the Mi^m river and Albanian AjÎms laundrette, bath; ijipe plate). In fact of proper names people, old “the kp<ra.<ris of the inscriptions makes think of Arce nowadays (Albanian courageous, daring aptreÇe), ^a/cTciAof with As' jfê, AÔLffKvhos with Detsko, Kctvvof with Kon, Konai; \ with. Mnt, the hero, in Ajs-oce, NÔ.i/h and NR “W” V with News (CP. VÔlwii mother), M/co* with Mi' “O, etc etc

Manners and the habits of laLycie of formerly frequently point out those of current Albania. This last country contains more cyclopean walls than any other

(1) Bachofen, p. 49.

(2) Blau, p. 660.

Europe; bands of masons leave every year there to traverse the Turkish empire by offering their services to which wants to pay them. Hecatée reported already that the people come from Lycie, working and living from day to day, had built the walls of Tirynthe, had dug the caves of Nauplie and Argos (v. higher) (!].

The Albanian ones do not have the right to call their husbands by their name; same defense, according to Hérodote was made to the women of Cariens.

When the Albanians have to deposit in front of justice under oath, they have, before lending it, one or two months for good to get informed about the circumstances to which they have to testify. Thus Nicolas of Damas teaches us that Lyciens quoted like witnesses in a lawsuit, do not deposit immediately, but only after one one month deadline (2).

Same Nicolas rightly undoubtedly when he speaks about the high regard in which Lyciens hold the women (3); this regard however did not have, as one believed sometimes, the character of a gynécocratie. Thus Locriens, which had mixed with Lélè- ges in a strong proportion, established their family trees using the names of the mothers (4).

Hahn already pointed out that the Albanians carried the hair like old Abantes, that Homère calls I-vitâev KopoavTes (5). These Abantes appear too

(11 Blau, p. 661.

(2) Id., p. 651.

(3) Nicol. Prejudice., fragm 129: in Mûller, fragm H G, H, 461-

(4) Polyb., XII, 5,6.

(5) Hahn, p. 172,

to have been of origin lélège, and to have hardly differed from Courètes de Chalcis, which shaved the former part of the head and preserved this fashion, when they emigrated in Etolie and were fixed on the borders of Albania. Blau claims, according to Fellows, that the monuments of Lycie show the same kind of hairstyle.

Finally the scientist linguist of Breslau says to us to be struck, at the time of his voyage in Albania, of the extremely pale dye of his inhabitants, and he points out on this subject the saying of the Stratonicus musician brought back by Strabon (1) which, with the sight of the livid faces of the men and the women of the town of Caunus, located on the border of Lycie, would have quoted the worms of Homère:

OÏh Tê/j <bvhKa>v yeveti, hay <f£ KB.} àv^Sv.

The relationship of old Lyciens and the Albanians today could not make of doubt for us, who hold for certain that the funds of the population troïenne was of nationality lélège; that Enée, chief of Dedicated, were Troïen, that this Dedicated is however called a lycian city, that the same proper names return in Troade and Lycie like Xanthos, Tlos=Tros, etc What is stranger, it is that Lyciens could have been well of the same family as Trères, than the ones regard as a population thrace, them with

(1) Strabon, XIV, 556,35. - II is to be noticed however that the paleness of the inhabitants of Kaunos is allotted by Strabon to the malaria which reigned there in autumn.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:55 am

very like a tribe cimmérienne (1). What is certain, it is that plain in Lyciens Trères beat the Lydians and conquered Sardes towards 600. The army of Thraces which at the time of the invasion of Cimmériens penetrated of Europe in Asia, was ordered by certain Pataros. One finds on inscriptions and currencies Lyciens joined in Thraces (AwciW &peuuiti). The word Tpùçes, elsewhere Tp “fêf, appears to be I Albanian word Tféiov or Tfaf/pi. Tfâfê diagrid, stringer (to say: confederated?) It finds in the name of a river of the tium Tf “/>of (2).

§10. - Proper names formed with the endings - aaaoç, - aaaoc - “jctoÇ, etc

Doctor Blau pointed out that these endings meet in the names of many places located in the southernmost districts of current Albania; he quotes Modrissus, Lisso, Artissa, Brissa, Kalissa, Arassa, Pliassa, Riniassa, Paljasa, Schalassi, Schiessi, Jaissi. It is allowed today generally, that these endings are not Greek; Movers believed that they were cariennes (3), II names initially Amamassos and Tamassos, old cities of the island of Cyprus, then Assos, Halicarnassos, Imbrasus (beside Imbros), Kryassus beside Krye, lassus beside Ios (there was Jassus in Achaïe and the Decay), Kybassus, Nar-

(1) Bachofen, p. 19; Dieffenbach, II, p. 178-180.

(2) Dictionary of Pope to the TfSfot article.

(3) Movers, Phœnicier, III, 20, note.

/cossus, Prinassus (CP. Priene), Pigalassus, Bubassus, Sagalassus (of ^<i, D property), Dyndassus, Harpassa, Bargassa, Myl-asa, Pegassaet Pedasa, etc As this termination are employed sometimes to indicate mountains such as riafti-ttfffftx, Koç-neeof, Zçihneats (of $pt meaning Albanian horn), perhaps even T/kot-tÔ*, for 'T/jinaffos; that on another side the town of Assos (1), in Mysie, was located on an inaccessible height, the direction of the word, before going down to the row from an ending, was to be rise, strong position. One can compare the antiquated Latin word asa, for macaw of the root ace sitted being. Macaw does not mean only furnace bridge, but any high base p. e.g. macaw sepulcri. Semites by invading Minor Asia have-they borrowed from Pélasges a word of which there doesn't remain any more trace in current Albanian? In Hebrew \ ys has the direction of bases. The small borough with " h.<jsnyôs, not far from Millet, reproduced exactly the shapes of Hebrew D' IîWtf bases, bases. It would not be absolutely necessary that all the cities in - assws was built on heights. It would be enough that they were surrounded by ramparts the top of which one could defend them.

There were four Pedasa; it is true that most famous was called 10. HnJW^, the old capital of Lélèges. It was located in the Decay. In the same city a smaller place called was UttS' a.yiv. The third town of this name was N” JWôs with the foot of the Ida; she was populated, she, of Lélèges, and was also controlled by

(1) II still another small town of Assos, located in Epire had there.

king Altes. She was destroyed by Achille. Finally there was had a “nwJWô* city in Messénie, surrounded by vines (i^e^oeffffa) whose Agamemnon wanted to make gift with Achille with six other places (Kardamyle, Enope, Hire, Phères, Anthée and Epée (1). Movers believes to recognize names cariens in that of the headland EP dalion of the island of Cyprus and in that of the IliiJWîw river running in the same island. Today the pad root is absent in Albanian, as that which was used to form the ending - assos. In Hebrew padan would mean field, countryside.

The endings - iffffof, - vaffot, - maa., be-they identical to - /.ffsusf the thing are at least possible. The Albanian idiom is not foreign with so widespread apophony in the teutonic languages. There was in the country of Locriens, close to Oeanthe, a place of the name of fiffaôs. Everyone knows the town of issos, in Cilicie, famous for the victory of Alexandre. The same name returns in “lff<ro<, old name of the island of Lesbos; another island located close to the coast illyrienne was also called “drilled. (2) Finally all the cities of the name of Larisse would find their explanation here.

The ending should not be confused --ffffos, -: aa& with - heap which characterizes the name of some rivers. This - Iso! appears to come from the Indo-European root vish, to divide (vishu bipartitum) cpr. ] <ro ((3). Indeed, laughed

(1) Iliad., IV, 150 and suiv.

(2) Let us not forget that in Laconie there was a mountain of the name of Issôrion.

(3) Benfey, Wurzel-Lexicon. II. 222.

vières divide the fields. Thus na.fj.ia cf would be that which divides the pastures, K” <p; ffô* the lazy divider (of its slow walk: xtxpw bumblebee, lazy insect). Hoists appears to be itself called initially fÀKKiaot of its sinuous circuits (of I will ftif<ra twist). The neç/metrof only fact exception; it would be liked that it was called neçpiffos. It is born on Hélicon, and after its confluence with Holmios it is thrown in the lake Copaïque. Does its name appear to come from Albanian vctqeç or ntfui? to urinate.

§11. - Of some names which start with the Tsv- syllable.

We already maintained the reader the etymology of Tei/*pof that Hahn attaches to Sex.ef.ea. barley, and Benfey, with the Ti//c root to reach, strike. To arrive at a plausible result, it is advisable to compare the words or the names which seem to be formed using similar elements. It is especially: Tev^éa., borough of Achaïe located close to Dymé, with a river 1 ' euàéa.s, affluent of Acheloos, which runs in Elides: then leva.s borough of Arcadie, 1eu%fa.viu city of Mysie with its former king TeûSpctf residing there; TevSpànt city of Laconie. One can add to it lei/Tapos name of the father of the philosopher Bias, levuneak small town of Béotie, perhaps of others still.

If it is true that TÉi/^o//*/is said for TtJ-w.à.oiM.i, if the TsxTa^os form is beside Tet/r^f, so finally rsurar and Tê^rn cannot be separate root sanscrite tvac' to cross, work, In^nsao. and lev^nnaot would be about the same word and would mean: worked, built well well. It is however necessary to consider that there existed in antiquity certain Tevr&pof, first owner of the arc carried later by Hercules, and in particular a queen of Illyrie called Teuta or Teutana, and an island of the Adriatic of the name of Teuthria. Illyriens have-they already, in these moved back times, of the relations with the Slavic ones and the German ones? It is undoubtedly very-possible. However in Lithuanian tauta wants to say people: it is former German: thiuda. Would the name of the Germans be thus indicated in advance in prehistoric darkness of the migrations of Lélèges and Pélasges? In the TevSéa names, Terô/xw' H, Tefàpaf, the second syllables do not offer difficulties (5eâ.a/juti I see, 9/>oVof a/i root “to place). There remains however another explanation. The Teivynos mount was translated into Sanskrit, I do not know by whom, tavat-g' ATA i.e. Toeavres yeyât. The two last syllables are found in mvynof. If it is admitted that a proper name can be thus made up with a pronominal form, one could try to find a conclusive pronoun in TivSéa, Teu&ptacw, etc D appears certain that the verb revràÇt” does not have an other origin.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:56 am

§ 12. - Of some geographical names isolated and explained using Albanian.

Initially let us review some Aegean Islands. There we meet initially the old station phenician of Oliaros where one sinned celebrates it shell and where one dyed color of crimson the invaluable fabrics. However ^.japcty wants to say in Albanian I dye, *ja.pôs variegated, multicoloured. O is published to be only the Semitic article ha, haï or al. Imbros (etlmbrasos) point out ///Epis I empty, /xjSp with “vacuum, desert. Nisyros could come from saw I decorate; Do Icaria of înéiy I flee (lalégende of Icare?) or of ix.pa. - Te, abrasion, eggs of fish; Paras of tablecloth bleaches on grass, greenery. The island of Samos, located itself in the sea Icarienne, would draw, according to Strabon, its name of an old word féifjux meaning height, hill. But this word which does not answer, which I knows, no root of the Greek language, appears to be transmitted either to the Greeks or in Pélasges by the Semites, Hebrew DD \ there of wanting to say: to be high from where D' D^y sky, and perhaps even D \ Î7 the name, i.e. the sign in relief. This etymology is supported by the Greek triïpa. that one usually identifies with Slavic the nzamenie. There is an island of Samé close to Ithaque. The capital of the island of Cephallénie bore also the name of Samé or Samos; one can finally compare 2a//<w, citadel raised on the edges of Anigros in Elides.

While approaching in the Peloponnese, we meet Pylos, name carried by three cities located in Elides, Triphylie and Messénie. Nélée, as one knows, was not the founder of these cities; the name indicates certainly a lelegic origin. Oim-/still today wants to say club-footed, forest, in Albanian. There were an old town of Pyléné in Etolie and Uv^aiov opos (wooded mountain) in the island of Lesbos. Hahn, which knows the etymology of Pylos, points out that Pylade is naturally called the friend inseparable from Oreste, one being the man of wood and the other the mountain dweller. Hahn announced pareillement the Albanian origin of the name of the headland Malée, email meaning mountain in the idiom of Skipétars. These bringings together could be increased considerably. Let us quote the three 4>apai Has chaïe, of Messénie and Béotie, without counting to the colony Pharœ fondéepar the Achaens in the island of Crete. The name is attached to Albanian *** seed, fruit, descent, race. Let us quote eencore Aé/2e<Tof in Ionie, AêjS<*JW close to Hélicon in Béotie to > \ E!? >£i>iy I celebrate, I illustrate, though Miklosich makes derive this verb from Latin lau- dare. As for the names of the island of As/3/rôo* and Mfcma., port of the town of Gortyne in Crete, they could be well of origin phenician. Avaros in Eubée, appears to be Albanian <Ty<m-a flat, countryside, etc

Let us not forget to quote beside the proper names of Avxof and SuTiTi-, vestiges of the passage of Lélèges in the Attic, the name of the dème Xoam'<t “/coming from Albanian - ^ôh^s thin, fine, sagacious.

Still let us quote the name of the island of Délos, the island of the god of the Sun, Albanian <T/sA/, “ti' have sun; that of a/fiiM city) located in Illyrie on two mountains, of Albanian <T/two and pÛL^- 'jf mountain; and finally the river in the island of Salamine, which one called later while translating, while it was disfigured, the old word $ovx.ovpa which in Albanian nowadays means beautiful. One learns to us at the same time as Trézéniens called spring faéxapot, i.e. the beautiful season (1).

Finally the name of Myndos, city of the Decay is explained by Albanian //ouc <T I am powerful, I am victorious.

Many names of cities and Latin rivers have an absolutely Albanian air. It is by Albanian that are explained the names of the three great battles where Hannibal overcame the Romans: the name of the Ticinus river seems to come from Tsim-a. gutter; that of Trebia de TpéQt route (Greek Tpifcot (2)? and the name of the lake Trasimène de Tpàffe-a. large, Tpà.<rpe-jai size; it is the big lake. Thus the name of Zcnpcti, thrace tribe established between Strymon and Nessus, is found in that of an Italian city: Satrio (Albanian satéri, knife, axe). B^npa city of Etrurie appears to mean: market, hay of faéiy I buy, fajîpe-x. purchase, shopping, etc

Most important of these names is obviously that of the Tiber. Tovfapif is an old name lélège like Téppepof and Tgp/xepis (3). He points out that of a well-known river of Bithynie, Thymbris, and the Thymbra city located in Troade, famous by his temple of Apollo. Since it is question of a river, let us recall that in

(1) In Hebrew “|p3 (bàkàr) means cattle and “|p3 (bôkêr) morning, dawn.

(2) Demetrio Camarda, Saggio sulla lingua Albanese, p. 27,42,106.

(3) Bachofen, p. 49.

lycian iv [j.wa means goat, and that in Albanian rov$ \ E-& is “a clay water conduit. ” Cpr. tibia, tuba, etc

Let us add Bardœi or Bardei, people of Illyrie and Barderate, city of Ligurie, drawing the origin from their names probably of white Albanian @>a.pS (1).

§ 13. - New conjecture about the name of the town of Athens.

Our intention could not be, to raise the proper names so many phenicians in all the parts of Greece. However we do not resist temptation to try to give name of Athens an explanation drawn from a Semitic idiom. The coasts of the Attic were attended of very-good hour by Phéniciens and Cariens; they established colonies there; the legend of Amazones proves that a Semitic goddess, Astarté de Sidon, was adored in Athens even. Why Athens wouldn't it have been a station phenician as well as Thèbes? Curtius will not persuade anybody by giving of the Greek 'Aàmw the Florentia translation, though the city is called today 'Arô/Vsa by the Albanians. Undoubtedly the campaigns of the Attic never were well flowered. If Athens of i' Attique were oldest of all Athens which existed, one could make come the name from the famous town of nJNJ ") (TênahJ,

(1) See besides with the fifth delivers the long list of the names of Basts, rivers and mountains of Epire, which are repeated, with light modifications in the southernmost part of Italy and Sicily.

fig tree, preceded by the Semitic article. Athens would have the same direction Q \ i' îpiveis fig tree wild, name by which are indicated several places of old Greece and Troade, and in particular one of the boroughs located at the foot of Pinde and inhabited by Doriens before their invasion in the Peloponnese. One is not unaware of that the figs were abundant in the Attic, and that the inhabitants of the canton made a traffic of export of it.

But there is appearance that oldest Athens is not Athens of the Attic. There was in antiquity ten. places which bore this name (1); there were of them in the Decay, Acarnanie, Laconie, Eubée ('ASài/a/&ià.£es), etc, etc But, according to Strabon (2), followed by Pausanias (S), Cécrops would have founded at the time where it would have reigned on Béotie, close to the lake Copaïque, destroyed Athens and Eleusis both by the floods of the lake. The two cities were located on a small river of the name of Triton. The name of this river is inseparable from that of the Athéné goddess; it was believed that it had been born on its edges. Others placed its birth close to the Tritonis source, which one showed in Aliphera in Arcadie; others even close to the lake Triton, in Libya (see higher). Always it is that Tfirayériut was one of its most known nicknames; it indicated the déessesansqu' ily had need for ajouter' Aàncct or Na \ Aàr. The grammairiens claim that Tpnâ means the head in the language of Athamanes, thus explaining the legends of has

(1) See the dictionary of Pope continued by Benseler.

(2) Strabon, IX, 407.

(3) Pausanias, IX, 24.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:57 am

close which Minerve would have left the Jupiter head. Always is it that Athéné was a divinity of fertilizing water. For this reason in a myth of naïque Cyré-, about which we will speak further, it could be presented like a girl of Neptune and Tritonis, nymph of the African lake of this name, located close to small Syrte. Triton itself according to Hésiode (1) would be wire of Neptune and Amphitrite. However, in Albanian T/jÉt wants to say to melt, will bora freù' Fe. bottom snows it. Doesn't Bora is it the Greek/? o/>p “? The participle rptrowe means molten, dissolved. Let us add that Tprrawf is the name of a city beyond Macedonia. Nothing astonishing that the names of the rivers and the mountains often show a higher antiquity than those of the cities. Athens, according to us, would be a colony of Phéniciens established on a ground inhabited by the primitive population which we know. In our eyes the word Athens would be other thing only the Hebrew word} >uy (âtin) which means place of pasture and rest for the cattle. Athéné Tritogeneia would be the goddess of the pastors of these trimmings, of these wet hollows.

§ 14. - Test to explain using Albanian some proper names people belonging to the mythical and heroic ages of Greece.

1. The name of the king of Lélèges “kyx.a.ïios with Samos appears a Greek word or at least a grecized word. ”

(L) Hésiod. Théog., v. 931.

corn to be attached to a substantive <*>* “like Ava.yx.At Cs with àvàyM. “hyx.n is a form older than à.yx.0.^” ulna, arm. The direction appears to be: defender, strong guard. Compare the name of king Ancus.

2. The name of LP” “uj, king of Lélèges with Pédasos or priest with Lyrnessos appears to come from £pi-p horn. The horn in high antiquity was, as one knows, the symbol of the force; unless one should not see in the name of this character a derivative of 0/>éw I kill, £peje or $ps' uj= meaning murder, thirst for blood.

3. The name of king Altes in Pédasos could be explained by a word common to Lélèges and Cariens: 0.^0 horse. Altes would be: provided with a horse, rider, knight.

4. The hero of Phasélites Kylabras could draw his name from Mvks turn, bastion and of (2/>< “I kill, or of fyiiy I corrode.

5. Wind of north, the north wind |2app ““or $/>pé&s appears to be other thing only Albanian $ôj>j>a. snow.

6. Who will provide us the etymology of the girl's name of Chiron and Chariclo, of the wife of Eaque, the mother of Peeled? She was called 'Evfriis dorien 'EcJVif. We will find it in Albanian, where svS' E-jn wants to say chalice of flower, oenanthe, saxifrage (of ivfe/jt. I flowered).

7. Who will explain us feel name of the famous soothsayer Mo-4 “wire of Apollo and Manto, which founded the oracle of Mallos, in Cilicie, in.liaison.with Amphilochos and overcame with the play of the Calchas enigmas, which died about it of sorrow? However, Mopsos is identified by some with Lapithe Mopsos, founder of the small town of Mop-

.

Sion in Thessalie. The name of Calchas is attached obviously to tMKx<t.iv * I meditate, I reflect; that of Mop- S.O.S, unexplainable if one wants to resort only to the Greek roots, does not present any more a difficulty if the Albanian dictionary is consulted. M^.i>iy or - reôiy in the idiom of Skipétars wants to say: I learn, I teach; nnsova.pt a scientist; [XTr9ovo.pa knowledge, scholarship. One is not unaware of that M “4 “ri* are one of the old names of the Attic, name which one makes usually come from the name of one of his former kings Mâ^oTo* or Mé.vj, <! - 4. Mô4 “being the name of the intelligence even, we do not astonish if the canton which was the hearth, took some or received the name. The second part of the compound was often employed in the old proper names with the direction of extent, ground, country, strictly speaking: aspect, sight. One has to only compare

8. Which will be the direction of the name carried by the famous Dédale artist? There were on the border of Lycie a mountain and a town of this name. Albanian Dallj wants to say: I germinate, I arise, dallje-a swelling, size. From there in the name of a mount there is not far. Then faiS' â.^a I work in relief. It is seen, Aa/<f a.vo* is actually a name appellative.

9. One certainly also finds in the old history of Rome and pelasgic Italy of the names. Such appears to be that of Porsena or Porsenna, king de Clusium. The ending goes. or vt is that of a participle rarer than the ending - EP or - a/je or - ova.fi. Albanian Uopah wants to say to order, - xopaia. order, iropsfëewi (compound of - ropaio. order and $smt making) obeying. It is perhaps the old form even, of the name of the famous enemy of the Romans. One can thus explain Sisenna of sisem tasty, pleasant, attractive; Spurinna de T<rTupp, to drive out, etc

10. The three gods of died of Lycie are probably not pelasgic or Albanian origin. Arsa- read appears to be known as for tanks-el chops of God, nickname of the god carien of Mylasa. It is thus a Semitic god of origin, probably also adored by Soly- my. I am unaware of the origin of the names of Drins and Trosobios. In Albanian <Tpw wants to say: lock? Trosobios could be attached to a T/>/root “there, which would mean: to make tremble?

11. On the other hand, one explained for a long time the direction of the goddess Thétis, mother of Achilles, by Albanian Svt-i the sea. Indeed, the Greek dictionary does not provide a satisfactory explanation of the name of the wife of Peeled.

12. Thus Hahn makes come the name from the goddess ^tfjLtait of Albanian ce/u I curse, from where a substantive viptsTi somebody was formed which swears, which curses.

13. One identifies readily in Greek A. and ya. ; but how fact-it whereas r<tywtTnf was never said? The identity of the two words does not appear to me sufficiently not shown. The Greek F. point out Albanian “You ground, though Albanian Fe is male: <féou/rtpfe all ground. Hahn does not fail to quote the old name of Déméter: Year” (p. 251),

14. Plutarque teaches us (Pyrrh., C. 1), that one returned to Achille in Epire divine honors, and that it was called * ' b.oimof in the language of the country. In Albanian speite or çpeite wants to say fast, nimble, and one wondered whether it were necessary to see in this adjective the translation of the epithet ToJW “$ data with the Greek hero.


§ 15. - Of some Albanian words stray in other European idioms.

1. - The most important first and of all these words is the verb vfévry, aorist vféijya. I extend, I develop, I draw, I reside, who appear to have crossed with the EP lasges the Ionian sea, to be myself widespread in all the Latin Occident and to have given there to birth to the verb andar of Provence anarchist, French outward journey. Attempts of Diez to attach andar either to ambulare or even to adi- tare are not happy - that of Langensiepen, which while resting on reddere, become to return, render, etc, in the néo-Latin languages, would like to explain andar like a corruption addere, which following the insertion of nasal, would have left the 3me conjugation for the first, is not supported more (1). It is already not very probable that the significance of the phrase addere gra- dum to double the step, stuck in an invariable way to the verb addere only, while changing slightly. Two passages of Virgile and Silius Italicus quoted by Mr. Langensiepen (especially that of: quadrigœ addunt in spatia) returns, because of their forced turn, the conjecture addere=andare, even more incredible. And how to believe that the use of the verb addere with one, so strange direction took place in the middle of the classes popu-

(1) See Scheler, etymological Dictionnaire of the French language to the article outward journey

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

Post  udhësi on Sun Feb 01, 2009 4:59 am

laires in all the Latin countries at the same time: in Italy, Gaulle and Spain? It is obvious for us, that this word andar existed a long time in the rustica before being done day in the written language; there existed in the daily use of the people; there existed in the names of one hundred places - 'AcJW/a had the same sensque 'Op^o/aêm, i.e. the place where one to and from freely, where one remains, ubi versantur. The verb andar had to be a long time of use in France, since wind-row in the Norman dialect means step, in the dialect of Berry, which reaper can mow with each step that it advances; then sometimes that in Burgundy one says andier for a path in the vine. Indeed in Spanish andana and Portuguese andaina mean layer, series. Former Spanish presents even a form andamio step (Latin of the Middle Ages: andamius walk, entry). Finally Spanish andamio Portuguese andaimo andaimme means still small way on the wall or rampart, scaffolding (1).

2. - We will place at the second rank the Greek &<t*cw<7 “; of which it given forever of sufficient explanation. One made it come from? there a.pâ.e<ra>, one wanted to see an onomatopoeia imitating the murmur of the waves. This darkness of origin is all the more strange as it does not exist for the other terms which indicate the sea: TÔctoj Tréhttyof, “À* pond, etc But, in Albanian râxew-C want to say the wave, the wave; renovated I agitate, I torment, I balance; ràxe/u I joke; A.Ktvfia concern, enthou-

“!) The words andamio, wind-row, seem to reproduce the Albanian ending - pej*. in viïevnptja. extended; rfeir^j \” dwelling, leisure.

siasme. Let us add that into Serb also Catholic students, wants to say flood, and that Miklosich, which recognizes the Greek 5â.ha.ffffa pareillement there., wonders which of both idioms would have borrowed this word from the other. The word belongs obviously to the language where it is not insulated, where it belongs to a whole family of terms being explained the ones the others. Moreover the Albanians were familiarized with the sea head the Slavic ones.

3. - Among the words which Albanian would have drawn from the néo-Latin languages, same Miklosich makes appear your rea the tare, Serb will dara. Tare is explained in the dictionary of the French Academy: waste, reduction, either for the quantity, or for quality. Puisonytrouve: the merchants call tare the barrels, pots, cases, packing which contains the goods; and finally same goods, made deduction of the tare. Diez according to Freytag makes come the word from Arabic tarah distant, isolated; tarh the residue, the abandoned object. We make come Albanian tare-have with Hahn from will ndara division, separation (vS' â.iy I separate, divide, division). It is known that beside the Arabs, the Greeks acted in the Mediterranean from time immemorial as salesmen, and most of the inhabitants of Greece being made up of Albanian starting from XIVe century, an Albanian word could well slip into the spoken languages by the Mediterranean people.

4. - The word sopha is explained by Diez of agreement once again with Freytag by Arabic çoffah bench where one rests in front of the house. However, in albanaissophe-a (dialect of Guégeois) bench of grass means, and we find in the same language sepha-ja rest, joy. 11 is true that Hahn claims that sepha-ja is Turkish - is; but which of the two languages with borrowed the word from the other?

5. - The Germans usually make use of a word of which nobody still could provide the etymology, it is orange Apfelsine. The word nobler employee usually to indicate this fruit is Pomeranze. The first part of this last word is other thing only French apple, Italian poma; and he answers thus the first part of the word Apfelsine, since in German apfel means apple. On the second part of Pomeranze one can see the etymological dictionary of Diez:

Naranza is the dialectal Venetian shape of Italian arancio: Saumaise made come this last, as well as orange French, of Latin aurantia gilded apple; word by which one would have replaced with the Middle Ages the word aurata. This last would have been said for aurea mala apple desHespérides. Made up Aurantia with in would have given inaurantia, naranza, etc, etc Diez likes to better see in naranza a Persan word, introduced in Europe by the Arabs. The orange into Persan says nâreng; Arab nârang. The French word is the awkward transformation due to a false etymology; the people wanted to bring it closer to Latin aurum, French: however. Latin of the Middle Ages (at the 13th century) transcribed this Eastern term: arangia.

Fruit was imported in Germany at the same time by Provençaux which called it orange and the Venetian ones, which said naranza, poma naranza. But from where could veniraux Germanic populations the Apfelsine expression? The dictionary of Grimm is dumb on this point, and that of Kraft translated: Clouded-Apfel (apple of China), explanation to which one cannot stop seriously.

There is in Albanian an ending - ffive (given mn) using which this language forms substantives appellatives and especially abstracted, for example lufthfs in addition to with wine (of/““measurement for the liquids and goods), {secret JLnasqxrhe, sacrament; ^.jaytffive moisture; San/rivi dryness; ftpeurealve darkening of the sky; éyeptr' we wild beast, (of eypt wild) etc (1). Thus of soft a./j.ètïje, or et^e^js (one says as tu@*js) as the Albanians formed a H^t^jfîn substantive, whose direction is: sweetened dish, softnesses. We believe that it is the word even which German Apfelsine answers. - People of midday of Germany believed to recognize in Albanian ii^js the word Apfel, as Italians and French believed to find in Persan the nareng' Latin aurum. Examples of false éty- mologies inoculated thus with the language by the people are numerous in all the languages, even in German. (One has to only think of Kartoffel, Latwerge, Holzbock, etc)

Remain to explain how the Germans could have to adopt an Albanian word indicating very vaguely a obj and for which Italian and the francaislor had provided names generally known and included/understood (2).

(1) Camarda attaches with much probability this termination to the Greek termination - jvvn in ffKtypoavvn, Grammatologia comparata sulla lingua albanese, Prato 1866.

(2) In Albanian the orange amêre is said as into Venetian the sweet orange TsotjjwÂs or TaoTOXÀA”, of the town of Oporto.

To include/understand a as strange fact, it should be remembered as Venice belonged until these last days to Austria, that Germany still takes part by the wearing of Trieste in the trade which is done in the Mediterranean; that finally there existed not only in Sicily, but in the states of Habsbourg even, three Albanian colonies, one in laSirmy on the edges of Sawa going back to 1740; one second of 900 hearts in Erezzo which is only one suburb of Zara, capital of Dalmatie; a third of 210 hearts on the peninsula of Istrie with Péroé close to Pola. Albanian Péroé wants to say valley; the occupied territory by this last colony was granted in 1657 by the Republic of Venice to 60 Albanian families which had been withdrawn by the escape from the yoke of the Turks. As for Sicily, one knows that since the 13th century, it was a goal of emigration for the Albanians pertaining to the Greek religion. They live various points of the island and their number according to Bundelli can go up to 200,000 hearts (1).

Albanians of Sicily and Dalmatie which praised with the Germans the oranges that they offered to them, indicated them under the name of softness à^s^jahe. The Germans believed to recognize the name there even fruit and adopted it (2).

For an Albanian word which penetrated in the German language, that German words did not penetrate in

(1) Hahn, p. 13.

(2) To make more palpable the identity of Apfelsine and à///3 J I will point out that Xylander written 'soft i^ntxt. I softened.

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Re: Greece before the Greeks - Louis Benloew 1877

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