ALI PASHA TEPELENA OF JANINA551

ALI PASHA TEPELENA OF JANINA

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ALI PASHA TEPELENA OF JANINA

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 3:56 pm

The Origin of Ali Pasha









Page 1

When the Ottoman Turkey arrived in Balkan, the Islam faith knocked on the door of the people of Balkan. The Ottoman Empire known with the policies and laws of holy Koran did not use force to convert people to Islam. The Ottomans have studied culture, tradition, folklore of the people, and by giving a lot of wealth in peaceful way expended Islam among the people in Balkans. The Ottomans carefully have studied the Albanians. The Albanians were of high virtue. They were genuine, honest, courage and brave, heroic with war fighting capabilities, and trustworthy. Therefore, the expansion of this religion among Albanian was hard and long process. The exercise mostly practiced by Ottomans was the trust of Albanians. The Ottoman official in a diplomatic way was asking an Albanian whether is trustworthy and can he be trusted. The second question was, “Promise me that you will do a good thing for Sultan and for me?” A naïve mountainous man was confirming that he is trustworthy, and he promised that will do a good thing without knowing what. The Albanian native accepted the religion because he has already promised and given his word and trust. He had given his word and trust to the Turkish officials and there was no going back. Betrayed, laid, and mismanaged, the Albanian man was returning home with a new religion. He told to his family that they do not have to do the same what he has done because they have not given their trust and word. When the father was declaring himself as a Muslim now, the children accepted this religion in peaceful way. Every Albanian who converted to Islam was given a lot of gold and wealth by Ottoman Turks, even thou never asked for it. The trust and gold were the main factor of converting. In this way, Islam was accepted by Albanians even though Albanians never were good religious people. The new generation practiced Islam, and got educated. Today, this religion governs among many Albanians. Islam in science and philosophy is recognized as modern and progressive religion in peace and mutual respect.
After Albanians were known as warrior people, the Ottoman Turks started to steal and kidnap Albanian children for their own Janicher Army. Based on Albanian courage, bravery, heroism, honesty, and capabilities of the good warriors, the Ottoman Turkey found soldiers by kidnapping many children all over Albania. Sultan was not happy from the small number of the children, and forced the askers to attack and destroy not protected mountainous villages. The parents were murdered and children were sent in Turkey. The childhood of the orphans continued in military institutions all over Ottoman Turkey Empire. All the children were raised in the military institutions in Turkey. When the orphans grew up, they became military officers. It is believed that 85% of the orphans became high ranking officers of Ottoman Turkey. They were sent in many wars. Many of those Albanian children became high-ranking officers, and many of them died in the wars of Ottoman Turkey. Some of them experienced fatal injuries, and they died in wars. Some of those Albanian children, the officers of Ottoman Turkey got injured and disabled in these wars.
The handicapped soldiers lived in different places under miserable condition without being assisted or helped from the government and Sultan. Left behind without any relatives, they died being wounded and poor, and far away from their native land and country. Their unfortunate lack made them very poor causing death without a family, lonely with a wish to return to their native land Albania. The wish never fulfilled, but remained as a black dot in their hearts. They died with an unrealized wish; a wish to return to beautiful Albania. Many of the Albanians who managed to finish long term military service returned to Istanbul and got married with Albanian woman raised in the Turkey. Some of the Albanians had to create families with woman of other nationalities such as Egyptian, Armenian, Syrian, and other. The beauty of Albanians took the heart and the mind of the wealthy Turkish young woman, who was doing everything in her power to get married with Albanian man. The Ottoman Turkey was happy because of these marriages; they thought were implanting the Albanian courage and bravery to the Turks. Many Albanians that were living in Turkey averted those kinds of marriages, and they did everything their sons not to perform the military service. They paid a lot of money to avert this obligation. Some of them changed their names, and some were changing their living places or towns. When the traveling conditions got better, many Albanians were going back to Albania, Kosovo, Shkup, Manastir and other places in order to avoid the long year’s military service. The progressive Albanian families that were opposing the Turkish assimilation insisted to their children to get married only with Albanians. Always married with Albanian, they tried to maintain their traditions and customs, even though, they were living in Turkey among Asians. However, some of the Albanians returned to Albania and Albanian territories.
The family of Hysein Hysein was one of those progressive families living in Turkey, but they were opposing the rules of the Ottoman Turkey. The son of Hysein, Nasif, ignored and hated the rules of Turkey. This family hated as much the Ottoman Turkey, and in spite of this, they did not accept the Islam but Shija religion of Iranian people or Persians. They were dervishes, a Muslim sect of Shija. His father Hysien was also married with an Albanian woman. As any other Albanian, Nasif Hysein wanted to return to Albania even though born and raised in Turkey. The young man, Nasif, ignored the Turkish military service invitation, and went into hiding. Later, he traveled from places to places in order to avoid any arrest. The absence of Nasif in his village made impression to the local Bey that he went to serve the Sultan. Because Nasif was not an eminent person, the Ottoman Turkey did not bother looking for him. In order to make his living, Nasif got employed in a circus carnival from Egypt presenting in Ankara. He learned to dance. The skill he learned, from a circus carnival from Egypt, made his living. Dancing and his dervish monk appearance made his living very well. He traveled as an entertainer, and he with his dancing made possible to travel to Albania; a long year wish. While he was a child, Nasif heard a lot of stories from his grandfather about Albania. His grandfather told him that his grand grandfather was kidnapped in the village of Gardhiq in Albania and brought in Turkey, where he got married with a girl that was from Tepelena and brought to Turkey. Nasif heard a lot of good thing about the village of Tepelena and very shocking stories about the village of Gardhiqi from his grandfather.
The trip to Albania was realized by a cargo Ship. The destination of the cargo ship was Port of Durresi in Albania, and this city was the first city the foot of Nasif to step in Albanian soil. Like a dancer and artist in a musical group, he had a chance to see the cities of Butrint, Dures, Tepelena, and other Albanian cities. He and the musical group were entertaining the wealthy and Turkish officials all around Albania. The village of Tepelena, Nasif, wanted mostly; therefore he always asked the service men how to find Tepelena. While traveling around Albania with his musical group, Nasif found the village of Tepelena after long and tired search. The village of Tepelena is located on the rocky peninsula above the river Vjosa. Surrounded by vineyards which produce a remarkable wine, Tepelena is overlooked by the huge and wild mountain heights. People of Tepeleni were mild and not violent. Peasants were cooping with the winds and rainy storms that caused floods.

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Page 2

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 9:58 am

In the beginning, Nasif spoke the Albanian old language full of Turkish expressions, and other words that could not be understandable from the people of Tepelena. After one year, Nasif improved his Albanian language. By dancing, singing, and translating from Albanian to Turkish language, Nasif gathered enough money to build a small house. The people of Tepelena were against his idea to build a house in Tepelena; they did not want the stranger to be settled in their village. However, Nasif resisted and built the house in the village. Nasif was very intelligent and a good man. He helped to everyone. People of Tepelena saw to Nasif a genuine honesty, and agreed he to get married with a girl of Tepelena. Nasif got married with a beautiful girl from the village. They lived happily until the end of their lives. One empty pore left in his heart. Nasif never found who the relatives of his grand grand mother were, and he had no way to find out.
Nasif left one son called Hussein who managed to marry a lame girl of a Bey in Këlcyra. She gave a birth to a son Mustapha, and he was allowed from her family to have a title Bey. Mustapha Bey had a son Sali. Sali had two sons Miftar and Beqir. Myftar had three sons, and Beqir only one son, Islam Bey. Myftar was able to fight the people who were attacking and stilling from the villages. Myftar volunteered himself in action against the Venetians in the island of Corfu. He was a great and successful warrior. In 1716, Myftar was betrayed by his own soldiers who were Turks and Greek, and he was defeated in the battle. In the island of Corfu, the Venetians made a trap and through e net over Myftar. Myftar was captured and crucified alive. Later, the Albanian soldiers found and destroyed the Venetians. The soldiers that betrayed Myftar were killed too. The Ottoman Turkey declared Myftar as a martyr of the Turkish Empire. Myftar and Beqir had daughters, and they are listed in the Ottoman Turkish diaries. Because of their political importance to the Turkish government, the names of the daughters are buried in the archive and never published. Their names are anonymous for the readers, but not for the Turkish archives.
The youngest son of Myftar was called Veli. He was very good-looking, joyful, and an adventurer man. He wanted entertainment and parties a lot. Veli spent without limit. When he did not have enough money, Veli started to rub the villages, perpetrated criminal behaviors, and build a bad reputation for himself and his family. His older brothers, holding titles Beys, had good reputation in the region and other places. They were having a privileged respect. They started to get angry and mad on Veli. Veli continued to socialize with gangsters of the time by building a bed reputation for him and his family. The other Beys of the region, especially their enemies, were laughing on Veli and his brothers. Veli’s brothers got very mad, and they threw him out of the house. Veli did not care; he continued his joyful life. His brothers were angry at him because he was not changing. They started to ignore, and they did not speak to him. One night, the enemies went to the house of Veli’s brothers and locked the doors and set the house in fire. Velis brother were murdered, and Veli was blamed for this action. People thought that Veli has revenged his brothers for throwing him out. Islam Bey of Tepelena revealed who burned the house of his cousins, but he did not range a war against them in fear that he will lose the power and experience the same. Islam Bey decided to trust the village of Hormova to his cousin Veli. The neighboring Beys in collaboration with Venetians and Russian, and Gypsy or Greek terrorists, the enemies of Islam Bey, found their way easier of dealing with Veli than with Islam. They organized rioting in the region of Islam Bey. Islam Bay arrested the rioters and gangsters, and he punished them.
However, the neighboring Beys paid a lot of money for their release. The Beys and some Gypsies or Greeks paid a sum of money to the same gangsters to riot and set the house of Islam Bey in fire. Islam Bey was murdered, and the Beys or the enemies, in fear to be revealed, complimented Veli to Sultan in Istanbul. Sultan appointed Veli as the Pasha of two tales. Later on, Veli revenged the Bays and the Greek terrorists. All the Beys and Gypsies or Greek terrorists that perpetrated the crime were killed. Veli Pasha was a man of good heart, and he was nice to the widow and four children of his cousin, Islam Bey. Veli Pasha was married and had four children. Veli Pasha was a good and a progressive governor who allowed prosperity in his region. He felt in love with a beautiful girl, Hanka. She was the daughter of Kurt Pasha of Berat. Veli got married with Hanka. Hanka was a woman of great moral and high force of character with a little gentleness as Tamora, Queen of Goths. “When Goths were Goths, and Tamora was queen.”(William Plomer pg. 20) Veli and Hanka had two children, Ali and Shainsha. Veli Pasha was so generous and so nice with people and with orphans. He helped to everyone, and he released the poor from the taxes. He had mercy for everyone. The Beys and the people were happy and liked Veli Pasha. He was the only Pasha in the entire Ottoman Turkish Empire to release people from the taxes. Veli Pasha the father of Ali Pasha died having not too much wealth. In 1753 Veli died at age of forty-five as a poor Pasha leaving two widows and six orphans.

References

“Ali Pasha “- Sabri Godo. Book published in 1993 in Tirana, Albania.
“ The Diamond of Janina” - William Plomer. Book published in 1970 in London, United Kingdom.


Last edited by AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:02 am; edited 1 time in total

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Who Was Ali Pasha of Janina

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:00 am

Ali Hysein was a pasha of Epirus or Albania. He was born in 1743 in the town of Tepelena, Albania, but no one could remember exactly the month and the birthday. Some stories say that he was born during a harshly cold winter day, and some stories say that he was born during a shiny spring day. Ali Pasha was born in a royal family. His father, Veli, was a pasha of two tales, and his mother, Hanka, was the daughter of Kurd Pasha of Berat, Albania. Shahinsha was the only sister. His father died when he was quite young leaving him with his young mother and a little sister. Ali grew up to be a handsome white tall man, blue eyes, blonde hair, brave, and non realized dream of many women of that time. He was brave and true warrior, and always was bound by the Albanian laws and customs. He respected the canon called the “The Canons of Lek Dugagjini.”
In appearance, Ali was extremely handsome. He had an air of frankness and honesty, and a smiling with a humorous expression. He had a good forehead, broad and open; a clear eye, described as keen and seductive; a well-formed nose, and a fresh complexion. His mouth and chin were now hidden by a beard. Nothing was more characteristic than the vivacity guttural laugh, a trifle ogreish in its cheerfulness. (William Plomer, pg. 82)

Ali Pasha was two times married. At the age of 24, he married lady Emine known as “Um Gulsumin,” the daughter of Kaplan Pasha. They were happily married. After lady Emine died, he felt lonely, sad, and disappointed from the life. At the age of 73, he married Vasilike Kondakchiu. Ali Pasha had three sons, Myftar, Veli, and Sali.

He was titled as a Pasha and as a Vizier from Sultan and Ottoman Turks, but he never liked them. Ali Pasha from bottom of his heart hated French people and Slavic people. The person titled “Sultan” in Ottoman Turkey was the most powerful person; he represented the king and the supreme commander of the entire army, the predecessor of the prophet and the king of universe, and the defender of Mecca and Medina, and god above all other gods.
The pasha was chosen and appointed by Sultan. The pasha represented the leadership of a province, or as a high ranking military general. The Pasha concluded the laws and policies in his territory by incorporating the ones from the Sultan. His son could heritage the title and the wealth, and rules the territory. It was an honorary title that was mostly given to the military generals, and sometimes pasha was called a high administrator. Sultan sometimes was titling, Pasha, an ordinary person as a sign of thanks for good things that he did for Sultan. The title Vizier was higher title then Pasha. Ali Hysein received both titles from Sultan.
Ali Pasha was a strong and healthy, but when he got old his health weakened. Ali’s health was robust, but he suffered at certain times of the year, especially at the approach of the rainy season, from a violent fever, perhaps of malarial origin and popularly known as ‘the Lion’s fever’. Sometimes it attacked him during the last quarter of the moon, or when a particularly hot wind was blowing, a wind which was thought likely to have a bad effect on people strongly susceptible to electrical changes in the air. (William Plomer, pg 80, 81). In the spring of 1818 Ali had a violent attack of the Lion’s fever. (William Plomer, pg. 229).
While judging write, Ali Pasha opened the doors of the court houses in every city and town. He was the only person that after several centuries to bring law and order and freedom in the region. In addition, Ali opened a lot of religious high schools, elementary schools where children were obligated to attend at least three days in the week. He opened the first university in Janine where the lectures were being held in Turkish, Albania, Greek, Italian, and other languages. Almost every major city had hospital. He formed the local government to manage the sanitation and the hygiene in the cities. He allowed to be opened a lot of shopping stores and malls. The economy, the agriculture, the education, the metallurgy, and other experienced a high increase in the time of Ali Pasha. Ali Pasha built a lot of mosques, churches, synagogues, and other religious monuments for the people. Piaster was the monetary fund in the territory of Ali Pasha. Ali Pasha was the first to build cannon in Balkan Peninsula, and he opened the first mine in Albania.
Ali Hysein the Pasha of Epirus or Albania he never missed to pay a lot of million piasters to the Sultan. Ali Pasha of Tepelena died on February 5, 1822 at the age of 80. Even though 80 years old man, Ali ranged a three years war against Ottoman Turks. He never gave up himself to the enemy, and died as a brave man…. A chief ever glorious like Ali Pasha.

Byron: Child Harold

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Ali Pasha’s Childhood

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:04 am

In the village of Tepelena, Albania, the guns and rifles shots were heard far of way. They were the shots of happiness, and Veli Pasha became father again. “It’s boy. Its boy Veli Pasha,” said the servants in the palace. He named his son Ali. The mother, Hanka, was holding her son, and she was very happy. She only said, “Mash-Allah, Mash-Allah, Mash-Allah.” Veli Pasha called the gypsy man to run his drum. The imam came to pray the name prayer, and they all had a happy supper.

Ali Hysein was born in 1743 in the village of Tepelena, Albania. No one exactly could remember in which month he was born. Some people said that he was born during a cold winter day, and some said that he was born during a shiny spring day. It was a big happiness for the parents, Hanka and Veli. The most eminent pasha in the entire Turkish Ottoman Empire was born.

Ali grew up with his sister, Shahinshah, who was younger than him. They were raised full of happiness and surrounded with a lot of toys. They played enough in their unlimited games. As a child, Ali was very lively and restless trouble maker in his childhood world. When his father was present, Ali had no barriers in enjoyment with no limits in his playground. He could do anything that his heart wanted. His father, Veli Pasha, was having equal behavior with all his children, and he loved them equally. Veli Pasha never forced his children to do something that they did not want to do, and he never raised hands on them. The only barrier to his playing was the mother, Hanka. Hanka forced her son, Ali, and her daughter, Shahinsha to learn reading and writing, and she made possible for her children to get the best education in that time. The mother, Hanka, was the one who disturbed and disrupted their restless games, and she compelled them to learn.
Ali was only twelve and Shahinsha was only ten, when Veli Pasha died. The children had enough time to play and love their father, Veli. Now, Ali and his sister were with their mother, Hanka, who was of strong moral and tough character. The mother was young, and she had to experience the biggest bitter pain in her life. She was a widow with two children. Hanka and the widow of Islam Bey did not agree in many things. While the children were playing, they were fighting and biting each other. There were ten children and three widow women in one house. The fight was transferred to grown up ladies. Ali and his sister were the youngest children, and they were mostly bitten. They were protected only from their mother, Hanka. They became unloving children in the castle. The pressure mounted. After all the bitter fights and disagreements, Hanka decided to move out from the castle. She returned in her village, Karnian. The Islam’s widow continued with her propaganda against Hanka. The local people and the Beys, Gypsy or Greek terrorists, and others were enjoying the cold war between the three widow women. The widow of Islam Bey sided with the other widow of Veli Pasha, and she supporting her sons to heritage and share the title of Pasha with her sons. Hanka was tired of all of this, and she continued to live in her village of Karnian.
The French and Gypsy or Greek terrorists poisoned the four children of Veli Pasha. All the four children of Veli Pasha died, and the palace where they lived was put on fire. The Islam’s widow said that Hanka had killed the four children, and she blamed Hanka for organizing all the robbery and other criminal behavior. The people of the area believed that Hanka really did this. Hanka was young and very beautiful women. Many people wanted her, and she had numerous offers of marriage. For Hanka, only Veli remained in her heart and remained a widow woman until she died. The gossiping and other behaviors led to disregard of Hanka. Hanka was captured by the people of the village of Hormova, and she was mistreated, maltreated, raped, and she was bitten. She was sworn never to forgive and to revenge to people of Hormova. She did not live enough to see the revenge, but she expressed in it the wishes that Ali and Shahinshah should at the earliest possible moment do their best to exterminate the people of Gardhiqi and Hormova, and added a curse in this if they should fail her in this. She had also ordered to make a pilgrim to Mecca for the repose of her soul. (William Plomer, pg 46). Later, Ali Pasha not only revenged, but he massacred the people of the village of Hormova and Gardhiqi. Ali later days said, “I owe everything to her. Twice she gave me my life, as a man and as a ruler. She kindled my imagination and showed me my destiny.”
Ali had very happy childhood while his father was alive. After the death of his father, Ali witnessed and experienced not only bitterness and sorrows, but an evil. This bitter childhood taught Ali, what is the good and what an evil is.

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Hankua, Mother With a Broken Heart

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:05 am

Ali Hysein was born in 1743 in the village of Tepelena, Albania. No one exactly can say in which month he was born. No one remembered what month was when Ali Pasha was born. Some stories say that he was born during a cold winter day, and some say that he was born during a shiny spring day. His father was the youngest son of Myftar Aga, Veli Pasha, and a pasha of two tales. His mother was Hanka, the daughter of Kurd Pasha of Berat, Albania. As a child, Ali was very lively and restless trouble maker. When his father was present, Ali had enjoyment with no limits in his playground. He could do anything that his heart wanted. His father, Veli Pasha, was having equal behavior with all his children, and he loved them equally. The only barrier to his playing was his mother, Hanka. Hanka forced her son, Ali, and her daughter, Shahinsha to learn reading and writing. She made possible for her children to get the best education in that time. The mother, Hanka, was the one who disturbed and disrupted their restless games, and she compelled them to learn.

When Veli Pasha died, Ali was only twelve years old and Shahinsha was only ten years old. The children had enough time to play and love their father, Veli. The mother was young, and she had to experience the biggest pain in her heart. Now, she was a widow with two children. She had responsibilities to raise her children, and for her that was the most important task in her life. Hanka and the widow of Islam Bey did not agree in many things. While the children were playing, they were fighting and biting each other. There were ten children and threw widow women in one house. The fight was transferred to grown up ladies. The pressure mounted every day. Each lady was dreaming her son to be the next Pasha to heritage the authority of the two tales. Each lady was protecting her own orphans. Ali and his sister were protected only from their mother, Hanka. They became unloving children in the castle. After all the bitter fights and disagreements, Hanka decided to move from the castle. She settled in her village, Karnian. The Islam’s widow did not stop her propaganda against Hanka. The local Beys, Gypsy or Greek terrorists, and others enjoyed the scenes of the cold war between the two widow women. The widow of Islam Bey was siding with the other widow of Veli Pasha, and she was supporting Veli Pasha’s widow’s sons to heritage and share with her sons the title of Pasha. After few weeks, the French and Gypsy or Greek terrorists gave to the children of Veli Pasha something to eat. One by one, the four children of Veli Pasha died. They were poisoned, and the palace where they lived was put on fire. The Islam’s widow mad a huge propaganda and she said that Hanka had killed the four stepchildren. In addition, she blamed Hanka for organizing all the robbery, and other criminal behavior. The people of the area believed that Hanka really did this. Hanka was young and beautiful women with a strong moral. Many people wanted her, and she had numerous offers of marriage. She did not want to remarry, and Hanka remained a widow for the rest of her life. Only Veli remained in her heart. People of the area started to gossip. They created a lot of stories such as,”The bodyguards were those that shared not only her anxieties but her bed.” (William Plomer, pg 31) This was not true at all. Hanka returned to Tepelena as the queen in her castle.
She heard the gossiping from the village of Hormova, and ordered the taxes to be increased in this village. She thought to be the best to stop the gossiping. In addition, Hanka took over the control of the village of Kakos from the Beys of the village of Gardhiqi. (Sabri Godo pg.Cool In spit of this, the Beys of the Village of Garthiqi with the people of the village of Hormova started rebellions against Hanka. One night, Hanka was captured and mistreated. The people of Hormova note only mistreated her, but they bit, maltreated, and raped her. Hanka was badly wounded, almost, she died. She was sworn never to forgive to people of Hormova, and she was sworn to revenge them. Later in the life, Ali Pasha not only revenged, but he massacred the people of the village of Hormova and Gardhiqi.
In order to avoid any experience like in the village of Hormova, Hanko was moving very often from place to palace. Sometimes, the palaces were burned down by the local people after she left. She did not forget those too and made her children to promise her for revenging all those bad people before Hanka died. Before Ali got married, he and her mother Hanka had a long dialogue. She told to Ali, “The power belongs to the person who knows to get, the wealth belongs to a person who knows how to increase the wealth, and whose lags shrivel from fear deserves to die.”(Sabri Godo, pg 20)
Ali later days said, “I owe everything to her. Twice she gave me my life, as a man and as a ruler. She kindled my imagination and showed me my destiny.”

When Ali seized the city of Trikala, he got bad news. His mother was very ill, and she was calling on Ali. Hanka, the lady of Epirus was seriously sick. Ali rushed to Tepelena immediately. Hanka spends her last moments in having her will read to her by her daughter Shainshah. She expressed in it the wishes that Ali and Shahinshahe should at the earliest possible moment do their best to exterminate the people of Gardhiqi and Hormova, and added a curse in this if they should fail her in this. She had also ordered to make a pilgrim to Mecca for the repose of her soul. (William Plomer, pg 46). Later, Ali Pasha paid people to perform a pilgrimage for his parents. This kind of behavior is allowed in the Muslim religion. Hanka left a brave son, Ali Pasha, that today every Albanian proudly mention his name.

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Ali Pasha’s road to the title of Pasha and Vizier

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:08 am

Page 1

Ali had a long journey to the title of Pasha. The fortune of his live made possible to Ali to become thieve and rebellion from an aristocrat beautiful child. When Ali was 14, he was already stealing sheep, goats, and organized raids on neighboring villages. If Ali’s enterprises often prospered, that was largely due to his energy courage, memory, unscrupulousness, dashing leadership, heroic luck, and to the fact that he was one of the finest horsemen, swiftest runner and most expert shots in a country where every man could ride, run, and shoot. (William Plomer, pg. 33). Ali always had in his heart to revenge the people of Hormova and Gardhiqi for the bad thing done to his mother. He was young and inexperienced, and dreaming for the revenge. The young Ali with his twenty or thirty bandits attacked Hormova. The people of Hormova new for this intention, and they were ready to battle Ali. They were expecting them and defeated Ali and his friends. His mother, Hanka, was very upset and angry for this fatal act of Ali. Ali decided to stop any attack in near future. Ali thought that the best for him was to attack them later, but he and his friends did not stop to steal, to attack, and to perform rubbery even to the government caravans. All those miserable action perpetrated by Ali forced Kurd Pasha to order to his Bays and other Pashas to surrender Ali and his friends. The Beys of the area and friends of Kurd Pasha have lunched an offensive to capture Ali of Tepelena. Ali’s gang again was defeated with a catastrophic loss. Ali runs away in the mountainous region. He arrived to his friend Skendo Boja and Lek Dora. Ali shot few times on the air with his rifle, and he took his clothes and dropped over the ram and took some shoots. Ali told to his two friends to send his clothes to Kurt Pasha. His friend agreed on this, and they sent the clothes to Kurd Pasha. So, they did, and received 5000 piaster and handed over to Ali. (William Plomer, pg. 34)

Kurd Pasha was brave and warrior man. He new that Ali was not dead, but he wanted to make Ali a real and a true warrior. One of those days, Ali and his gang were surrounded and captured alive. All were brought to the castle of Kurd Pasha in Berat. Kurd Pasha saw a tall and handsome twenty years old man. Kurd Pasha asked Ali, “Why you turned yourself to a thief? I have told to your mother couple of times to pull you over the dirty works.” Ali answered in a proudly way, “The others have stolen from me, so I am returning what was stolen to me.” Kurd Pasha spoke again, “We are in a family connection, and your mother is my cousin.” He continued with a soft tone, “You found that to return by killings and murdering. You are loaded with sins Ali, and no one will help you, even the god.”(Sabri Godo, pg 16) Ali kept quite, and he did not say anything. Ali new that some of his friends were hanged, and he new that the same thing could happen to him. Kurd Pasha saw bravery and courage to Ali’s eyes, and he said that it will be a big waste to kill Ali. Kurd Pasha invited Ali to his castle. After a day in the castle, Ali wanted to marry Kurd’s Pashas daughter. Kurd Pasha was a tough Albanian, and he new very well the Albanian customs and laws.
Albanians never get married in the family, therefore Kurd Pasha found another person to marry his daughter. Ali was upset, and he joined again the gangs and the thieves of caravans known as “Hajduts.” Ali felt kindly in a small war with Kurd Pasha, and shortly left for Delvina, which town was governed by Kaplan Pasha who was in no good relationship with Kurd Pasha. Ali settled down and retrieved himself from the gangs, and later got married with Kaplan Pasha daughter, Emine, known as Um Gulsumin. Ali got married in 1768. (Sabri Godo pg. 20). When Ali got married was 24 years of age. ( William Plomer pg 36).
Ali loved Emine and Emine loved him and they were the happiest couple in whole Albania or Epirus. Before Ali got married, he and her mother Hanka had a long dialogue. She told to Ali, “The power belongs to the person who knows to get, the wealth belongs to a person who knows how to increase the wealth, and whose lags shrivel from fear deserves to die.”(Sabri Godo, pg 20). In 1769, Ali’s first son was born, Myftar. Two years later was born the second son Veli. (William Plomer, pg 36). Later, Hanka decided to marry her daughter, Shahinshah, to Emine’s brother. He was murdered in the battle against the enemy. Ali Pasha’s mother, Hanka, decided to return or marry her daughter for the second brother of Emine. He was 16 years younger than Shahinsha. (Sabri Godo, pg 23) After few months of marriage, the brother in law Ali Pasha of Delvina got killed by the brotherhood of his kind. The killing was organized by the Russian and French terrorists.
The governor of the Delvina was named Mustafa Aga Kokën. Ali continued his fight of becoming a Pasha. Ali could not do too much except to organize rioting and do more trouble for the new appointed governor of Delvina. Mustafa Aga was murdered in his palace by the unknown killer. Even though the title of Pasha belonged to Ali, the Sultan and Ottoman Empire decided to title another person as a Pasha. The Bay who was sending a lot of wealth to the port of Istanbul was appointed as a new governor of Delvina. Selim Bey was the new governor of Delvina. ( Sabri Godo, pg.24) Ali lost his title of Pasha few times, so he decided to be careful this time. Ali went to congratulate the title to Selim, and he brought many presents for the new Pasha. The two beautiful horses brought by Ali made Selim Pasha very delighted. (Sabri Godo pg 24). Ali stayed one week to the palace of Selim Pasha in Delvina, and he found where the dynamite can be put. ( Sabri Godo pg 24) Ali wrote a letter to one of his closest friend in Istanbul, and he described Selim as a seller of the Turkish land to Venetians. The word spread up in the Port, and Sultan order Selim Pasha to be killed. ( Sabri Godo pg 24).
Ali got the decree from Sultan. The guards withdrew, and Ali, nothing if not thorough, at once had an official document drawn up to say that terms of the decree had been carried out, and sent Selim’s two sons away under an escort to Tepeleni. He was rewarded for this murder with the rank and title he had so long coveted, and was nominated Pasha of Delvina. (William Plomer pg 41.)

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Page 2

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:10 am



Ali’s territory and his sons were growing up. Emine, the wife of Ali, was a kind and melancholic women with a genuine honesty and a good heart. She was praying five times a day, and she always prayed for the progress of her sons, her husband, and all the people. One of the sons of Selim Pasha Mustafa, escaped and arrived in Delivna where again he was appointed as a Pasha of Delvina. (William Plomer pg. 41) The Port agreed on this, so Ali again was a protagonist to fight the rebellions around Epirus. Soon the chief inspector surrounded Trikala with 4000 Albanian soldiers. (William Plomer pg 45) In 1787 when Turkey relations with Russia were going worse, Ali was given an important command under the Grand Vizier. (William Plomer, pg 44)
After seizing Trikala, Ali got news about his ill mother. Hanka, the lady of Epirus was seriously sick, and she called for Ali. Ali rushed to Tepelena immediately. Hanka spends her last moments in having her will read to her by her daughter Shainshah. She expressed in it the wishes that Ali and Shahinshahe should at the earliest possible moment do their best to exterminate the people of Gardhiqi and Hormova, and added a curse in this if they should fail her in this. She had also ordered to make a pilgrim to Mecca for the repose of her soul. (William Plomer, pg 46). Later, Ali Pasha paid people to perform a pilgrimage for his parents. This kind of behavior is allowed in the Muslim religion.

At the same time, the Bays of Janina did not like the Pasha. Ali met with those Bays and took action to throw the Pasha of Janina. Next morning, Ali was the pasha of Janina. Each Bay came to congratulate, and each of them hugged Ali Pasha. Each Bey came in the ceremony and produced a document the decree was drawn out of its crimson case; each Bey touched it with his forehead in token of obedience.
The Port had recognized the title of Ali as a Pasha of Janina. (William Plomer, pg 47). Soon after settling in Janina, Ali Pasha ordered to be built a garrison in Gjiro Kastra and other cities. When Ali came to power, the cities such as Trikala, Arta, and Janian were not big cities. The cities were full of baggers in an overwhelmed famine. With the initiative of Ali Pasha, the cities grew and were maintained by the people of Ali Pasha. The government of Ali Pasha paid people to clean the streets of Janina, Trikala, Arta, Preveza, and other cities. With one word, Ali Pasha brought law, peace, and prosperity in these cities. Janina had 2000 stores in the time of Ali Pasha. Under the leadership of Ali Pasha, the population of Janina grew over 50 000 inhabitants. The city was mostly populated by Albanians who consisted 90% of the entire population. Albanians in Janina were believers of Muslim and Christian faith. In Janina, Ali Pasha formed the gendarmeries and appointed Tahir Abazi. Tahir Abazi was a body guard of Ali Pasha, and his son Sulejman Abazi was appointed as chief of the patrols in and around the cities. (Sabri Godo, pg. 51)
Ali Pasha was sleeping only five hours, and Thanas Vaja, an Albanian Christian, was staying guard on his door. Thanas Vaja was the chief of the personal guards of the palace of Ali Pasha. ( Sabri Godo, pg 58 ) Ali’s chief minister, or secretary of state, was Mehmet Effendi, a man of very bigoted character, with a taste for astrology....(William Plomer, pg. 80)
Ali Pasha of Janina bound by Albanians laws and customs did not forget on the revenge and on the blood fade. He ordered his son, Myftar, and his old body Jusuf Arapi, “the blood drinker” to attack Venetians and French. During the night, the soldiers of Ali Pasha went in the villages of Hormova, and Lekli. All the men that were found with the gun in their hand were killed. Jusuf Arap was going to massacre children and women, but Ali Pasha ordered not to do because the canons do not allow. All the houses were burning in Hormova, and Lekli, and the flame got the house of Choush Prifti. Ali Pasha sat into a piece of wood, and waited for Chaoush Prifti to appear in front of him. Chaoush Prifti bagged for mercy, but Ali Pasha told him, “You were our server, one time server of my father, you betrayed him, and you killed the widow and the children of my cousin Islam.” Ali Pasha continues to ask Chaoush Prift, “Were you and the people of Hormova having mercy for my mother and my family?” Chaoush Prifti was handed to Jusuf Arapi, and he was burned alive. (Sabri Godo, pg 42). Jusuf ran a spit through the body of Chaoush, and roasted him alive. So, as heroic ballad in honor of Ali tersely expressed it: (William Plomer, pg 56).
The dark Khormovo became a ruin, and Chaoush Prifti roast meat in the frying-pan.” (William Plomer, pg 57).Ali Pasha did not forget on the village of Gardhiqi. Not so long after the flame of Hormova, Ali Pasha ranged revenge to Gardhiqi. Led by Thanas Vaja, Garthiqi was attacked and burned. Many women of Gardhiqi were brought to Libohova before Shainshahe, who was waiting for them all her life. Shahinshah did not kill any woman. Mad with excitement, she ordered their hair to be cut off, stamped it under the foot like a fury and shrieked that she would use it to stuff her divans. (William Plomer, pg 172). The bodies of the men of Gardhiqi were left unburied to rot where they had fallen, and their town was set on fire. (William Plomer, pg. 173). Ali achieved to obtain the titles Pasha, and Vizier. The promises to his mother were kept by him, and he died as a Pasha and as a Vizier.

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Ali Pasha and Kara Mahmud Pasha

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:15 am

Kara Mahmud Pasha was the Pasha of Shkodra (Scutari). He was a son of a royal family. The territory governed from Mahmoud Pasha was very big, and it was bigger than Ali Pasha’s territory. In the territory of Mahmoud Pasha, 2.75 million people lived. From the entire population, Albanians were 88.5%, and the reset were of different nationalities. Mahmoud Pasha in appearance was tall man with a dark hair, and very handsome. Therefore, the Turks were calling him black. Kara means black. Mahmoud bravery and courage was very well known to all. According to the stories, Mahmoud was a little younger than Ali Pasha. They new each other, and they were very good friends. Ali Pasha and Kara Mahmoud Pasha met each other few times near the city of Durres. They and the soldiers were singing patriotic songs that dealt with the heroic wars of Skenderbey.
In 1787, Turkey was at war with Russia and Austria, and Ali, having done so well in Thessaly, was given an important command under Grand Vizier, who he joined with his army of Albanians. In the course of the campaign a young relation of Ali was taken a prisoner by the Russian and during the negotiations for his release Ali and Potemkin met and exchanged presents, and took opportunity to discuss the future. ( William Plomer, pg 44). In this meeting. Ali Pasha and Potemking spoke for relationship or acceptance of independent Albania by Russian kingdom. Ali did not want to see any of his friend or his soldier to be prisoner. He paid a huge sum to the Russians for releasing or freeing his soldier. Ali Pasha did not like Russians at all. Before the war was over, Ali was ordered to take part in an expedition against rebellious Kara Mahmud Pasha of Shkodra. The individual had taken advantage of the war, and of fact that the part was fully occupied with the conduct of it, to do a little land-grabbing on his own, and had occupied several strongholds belonging to his Bosnian neighbors and to the Venetians. Nor had he tried to set up an independent principality on grand scale to include part of Albanian. Part of Bosnia, Montenegro, and Northern Macedonia. Ali felt sympathetic toward Mahmud, rather unwillingly helped to besiege him in Shkodra, and returned to the war as soon as he could. (William Plomer, pg. 45).
Instead of attacking Mahmud, Ali attacked his enemies. Kara Mahmud Pasha was the governor in his territory, and it would be very easy for him to declare independence because his territory was huge, and the population was high. Kara Mahmud Pasha as a ruler of all that territory could easily proclaim himself as King. Ali Pasha wrote a letter to Kara Mahmud Pasha by telling him that he had attacked from south. But, he could not help to Kara Mahmud Pasha. It was the only thing he could do for him. At the end of the letter he wrote, “The only way you to survive is your standing.” ( Sabri Godo, pg 40).
Ali with 3000 soldiers occupied the city of Korça and surrounded the city of Ohri. Ali ordered the castle of Ohri to be surrounded. He promised a lot of gold for the first soldier who is going to get on top of the walls. The castle of Bushatli of Rumelia could not resist the attack from three sides. In one side was the army of Jusuf Arap, in the other side was the army of Armatols, and in one side Ali with his body guards. The nephew of Bushatli of Rumelia was defeated and his head was cut off and sent to Istanbul. (Sabri Godo, pg. 39).
It was a joined idea of both Pashas to create a united and independent Albania. They always helped each other, and they always were together against Turks, Russians, and French. Ali Pasha and Kara Mahmud Pasha were Albanians, and they were proud to be always surrounded by the Albanian boys. It is said that entire phrases from Homer may be regarded even today as typical Albanian expressions, and as in their language so in their life archaic virtues were to be found. (William Plomer, pg 21).
The mixture of dirt and splendor and the confusion of ranks and customs made a strong impression on Dupré, but most of all he was struck by the material bearing and athletic build of the men, and by the bold, proud beauty of their heads which, he felt, needed only antique helmets to make them seem like the heads of the heroes in Homer. (William Plomer, pg. 236). “In general, the Albanians are of high stature, observed the Baron de Vaoudoncourt, “strongly muscular, and thin waisted. (William Plomer, Pg.21). Their profile is handsome... and tends to form the real Grecian Features.” The general impression was one of alertness, and prevailing type had fresh color, lively and expressive grey eyes, thin arched eyebrows, bony foreheads and high cheekbones, Their mouths were small, their necks were long, their back straight, their chest broad and elevated, and their arms and legs well made. They all could make their own clothes, which Byron called ”the most magnificent in the world” . . . they were agile and athletic in their gait being used all their lives to climbing mountains and their energy and enthusiasm made a strong contrast with the slowness and sedateness of their overlords, the turbaned Turks...(William Plomer, pg 22, 23). Those were the soldiers of two friends and Albanian princes, Ali Pasha and Kara Mahmud Pasha. Both had one wish: one united Albania.

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Myftar confronts his father

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:17 am

Myftar, the oldest son of Ali Pasha, confront his father because his father killed the woman he loved, Frosina. Frosina was a Gypsy of Greek woman. Her parents arranged her marriage without her agreement. Her husband was a local Greek. They lived in Janina. She never loved her husband. Her husband mistreated, maltreated, bitted, and wounded her heart. She was pity and beautiful. Even though Frosina and Myftar were married, they planted love in their heart. Love is a sickness that has no cure. This love affair to Frosina will be catastrophic. Her husband informed Ali Pasha for this affair. After Ali Pasha confirmed this love relationship of his son, Ali Pasha ordered Frosina to be tied up, put in a back, tied a stone on her neck, and threw her in the lake of Janina. Frosina, the beautiful woman vanished forever in the waters of the lake.
Because of this murder, the relation ship between the son and the father got in a big trouble. When Myftar arrived back to the fortress from the concurred wars of Adrianopoja, he got himself in the office of his father. Myftar without any respect and behaviors went to his father’s office. Ali Pasha rose on his feet, and he watched angry Myftar. Myftar, full of anger from the murdering of his girlfriend Frosina, said, “Don’t look like that on me because I will not kneel infront of you, and I am not a woman that you can tie a stone on the neck and throw me into the lake.” Ali walked a few steps forward, and put his hands on the guns. Ali moved his hands off the guns and said, “To your father you talk in that way you dog.” Myftar replied, “I do not have you father anymore, and I do not know you anymore.” Ali Pasha grubbed him for the throat and shouted,”kneel, or I cut your head off.” From the fear, Myftar kneeled and fearfully was looking on his father.
Ali calmed down and said, “Listen Myftar, women are the land, what you plant and you get.” Ali continued by saying, “The brave man never dirt himself with a woman of the street. You remember when I was in Danube, and you crushed Armatoli of Olimp. You are my oldest boy, and I do not want you to emberace me.” Ali Pasha wanted to show him and corrugate Miftar for what he told to his father. (Sabri Godo, pg. 140, 141). Later, Myftar hanged his head and left the office.

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The justice of Ali Pasha

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:18 am

Ali Pasha was a dictator, and he ruled his land with justice. He new the justice, and he judged without a mistake. He opened the court houses almost in any city in his territory, and the court houses were complete and competent on that time. All the complaints that arrived on his hand were solved. In the results of the justice, it will be presented some of the solved cases.

One time a man stole a horse in the village. The villagers have complaint to Ali Pasha. The person who stole the horse was found and hanged. The horse was returned to the villager. (Sabri Godo, pg. 156) This law was practice almost in every country in 1700 and 1800.
The other case dealt with two people, a priest and a merchant. The merchant borrowed money from the priest. After a period of time, the priest asked the merchant to return the money. The priest could not get the money back from the merchant, and he did not have a receipt and a witness that he had given the money. The merchant denied over having borrowed it, so the priest decided to lay the case before Ali Pasha. Ali called both parties in the court, and Pasha heard the statement of both parties. The Pasha told them that the conclusion will be in two weeks, and he ordered them to weight themselves before they live the court. After two weeks, Pasha called both parties in the court. He ordered them to be re-weighted. Ali saw the merchant had gained several pounds in weight, and the priest had lost weight. Ali Pasha turned to the merchant and asked him if he would rather restore the money or have his head cut off. The merchant at once prostrated himself, confessed the loan, and promptly repaid it with interest. (William Plomer, pg. 73).
One case involved an Albanian Jewish and a merchant. Both parties appeared in front of Ali. The merchant was blamed for stealing the jewelers from the pocket box of the Jewish. Pasha heard carefully both versions of the parties, and it was his to solve the case. In order to find the truth, Ali called few local artisans and ordered the same pocket box to be build. After the box was built, Ali asked the artisans can it be opened and how the jewelers can be taken. Artisans showed how the box could be opened. The case was solved.

Many other cases were settled properly, and the success brought happiness to the parties. All the problems and complaints that arrived in the court of Ali Pasha were solved based on the laws and customs of that time. Ali Pasha proved the justice to his people, and he proved that he judged without any mistakes, discrimination, and prejudice. He was equally protecting the rights without prejudice. The citizens of Albania for Ali Pasha were all equal. To Ali Pasha, the religion did not play too much role. The Muslims, Christians, and Jews were the same in front of the eyes of Ali Pasha’s justice.
Ali Pasha formed the gendarmeries in Janina and other cities. The gendarmeries were enforcing the laws and policies of Ali Pasha, and they kept peace in the cities and towns. He opened a lot of hospitals, and he designated the days of the trade and shopping mall. Some of the rules and policies that were governing the trade were as follows: The main day for shopping must be on Saturday. Ali Pasha brought rules and policies to govern the shopping mall or the trade. Every person that wanted to sell his goods in the trade must register himself and the goods. Based on the weight or quantity of the goods, the taxes were paid; he or she must pay taxes for using the shopping mall. Fruits and vegetables must be fresh, and the goods must be sold within 24 hours. Fish must be sold within 12 hours. If the meat was kept in a cold place, the meat could be sold within 4 days. If the goods were decomposed or molded, the goods must be thrown in to the appropriate place and cover with soil. The dogs, horses, cows, and other animals were not allowed in the shopping mall. The shopping building must be maintained. The walls were very often painted with limestone. (Sabri Godo, pg 53)
The religion was free, and no one was allowed to commit any form of discrimination and prejudice. Every person in the territory of Ali Pasha must enjoy the right to pray and practice his or her religion. The six Albanian Orthodox Churches in Janina were announcing every Sunday their prayers. (Sabri Godo, pg 51) Also, the Albanian Catholic Churches were allowed to use their bells to announce their prayers. The Jews were allowed to pray in Synagogues every Saturday. All the religions were free.

In every city, Ali Pasha opened elementary schools in Albanian language, Turkish language , in Gypsy or Greek language, and other languages. It is known that the real Greeks are Gypsies, or people who came from Egypt and India. In ancient time people who came from Egypt and India were called Gypsies. They were thieves and bad people, therefore they were called Greeks, from the old Latin word that meant thieves. By law, the children were obligated to go to school at least three days during the week. The attendance was mandatory. When Ali Pasha opened the doors of the schools in Albanian language, the Ottoman Empire took action to close them down; the news that the schools were “Madresses”, Muslim high schools, calmed down the Port. One day Ali Pasha visited the high school, “Zosimea”, where the voice of imams was heard far away. Ali Pasha was very happy with this visit.

The laws and policies of Ali Pasha regulated many things. The justice was the only recognition to Ali Pasha, and he judged without any kind of discrimination and prejudice while defending the freedom and the rights of the people.

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The Generosity of Ali Pasha

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:19 am

Like his father Veli Pasha, Ali Pasha was a man of a good heart and generous. Ali was honest and genuine. He helped to the poorest persons in that time. Some 400 poor people came to Janina, and in the middle of shopping mall started to ask for bread. “We want bread, we want bread,” the group was shouting. This was the period when the Vizier had closed the import of flour and wheat. He ordered that Janina make and produce its wheat and bread. People started toward the palace of Litharitca where Ali Pasha was staying. People started again their shouting, “Where is Ali Pasha,” “We want bread,” “We want Ali.” The guards loaded their guns and started to push the crowd. One of the guards shot and killed one person, and he wounded another one. The guards could use the canons and kill all those people. For a moment, someone shouted, “Who shot, and who was killed.” It was the voice of Ali. Ali Pasha found the soldier who killed the poor man. He said to him, “You are here to protect me from the enemies, but not from my people.” This person who committed this mistake must be hanged. The soldier who was very trustful laid his gun and went to the hanging place. The soldier was hanged, and Ali said, “He was a good soldier and a man of a trust, but he did a mistake. He killed the poor man.” One of the poorest men said, “We are dying, and we have nothing to eat. We came to our father, Ali, to ask for help and bread.” Ali replied, “Go on and tomorrow every one of you will receive bread.” People went off the castle of Ali, and next day 2000 kilograms of wheat was taken from the depots of Ali Pasha. All this wheat and flour were given to the poor People. (Sabri Godo, pg. 188,181,182). With this gesture Ali Pasha of Janina proved to the people of Albania and Epirus that he cared for them.
The people who lived in the cities, and they were the ones that could not found work. Ali Pasha formed the agency for cleaning and maintaining the cities. Many of those people who were unemployed in the cities, they found their living in this agency. Ali Pasha was generous, and he always has given to the poor and orphans. He grew up as an orphan himself.

Many mosques, churches, synagogues, and other objects were built by Ali Pasha in requirement of the people of Albania or Epirus. In addition, Ali built many houses all over Albania for poor people who could not afford to build in their own. Ali fulfilled the wish of his mother by sanding someone on behave of his mother in pilgrimage or hadg to holy cities of Mecca and Medina. This act is allowed in Muslim religion, and it is practiced. He helped the poor people in Istanbul. When the duties and gifts were send to the Port, Ali send many gifts to the orphans and poor people in Istanbul.
After Ali won the war against Suliots, he built houses gave them food, animals, and other. After all, Ali accepted them in his guard and his army. Many Suliots moved from Suli, but Ali allowed them to return to their houses and villages.

Vaslike, a girl of twelve, threw herself at Ali’s feet and begged his protection for her mother and brothers. Ali did not kill her family, and his soldier stopped the destruction of that village.

With one word, Ali Pasha was generous man of good heart that helped the poorest of the poor, the orphans, and the others. Leaving behind a history and legacy, Ali Pasha makes the Albanians glorious. Today, Albanians are very proud with his name.

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The War of Ali Pasha With Suljas

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:22 am

Page 1

In order to survive in the occupied territories, the Port and Sultan, always, created troubles, wars among Pashas, political rebellions, hatred, and other miserable political unrest that prolonged the life of the Empire. In Epirus where Ali Pasha was ruling, the mountains of Thesprotia and Suli region stood as the flag where the rules and laws of Ottoman Turkey did not take place. The region of Suli with dark wood forest was a natural fortress where the most spectacular scenarios in the Balkans happened. In the region of Suli, the settlement consisted of a few villages on a plateau about two thousand feet above the river Acheron, or the black River, which flowed through a darkest and deepest of the glens of Epirus. The villages on the plateau itself, which could only be reached by one step and narrow passage three miles long, had even something gentle and domesticated in their appearance, for there were cultivated terraces planted with corn and vegetables and fruit trees, and amongst in them stood houses, small square buildings with pitched roofs and two Stories, the lower used as a store or stable, and the upper containing two or three rooms. As for the people, perhaps 12 000 in number, they had a character and traditions of their own. (William Plomer, pg 59). Suli regions existed since ancient time, and it was mentioned in Mythology with its dark wooded romantic and scary panorama. In general, the people of Suli had many points in common with other mountaineers of Albania and Epirus, but they were not different than the other Albanians that lived in the mountains.

Oh! Who is braver than a dark Suliote,
In his snowy camise and his shaggy capote?
To the wolf and vulture he eaves his wild flock,
And Descends to the plain like a stream from the rock

Byron


Males were conscripted and trained in arms from the fare, skirmishes and sorties and stratagems, sudden attacks and quick retreats. They were renowned for their courage. (William Plomer, pg.60). Here we see the equal characteristics of other Albanians. When a male child is born to an Albanian household, the oldest member of family or the father of the child wraps the child with the national flag and puts a firearm under, and prays the god for this male to become a brave and a warrior. Geration to generation this was performed since ancient Illyrian and Hellenic culture or civilization. When a child grows among Albanians, he will be learning how to defend, attack, and how to war. As Byron mentioned several weapons not seen elsewhere, the same arms are still present and in use among Albanians of Shkupi (Skopje), particularly in the region of Derven Gorge that is located between Shkupi and Tetova. The tools are used in the daily life for cutting trees, wood, meat, and also it is used as defending arm that immediately becomes an arm of the warrior. In the village of Gerchec near Shkupi, the villagers do not go out of their houses without “Kmese.” The weapon or the tool was described in ancient time from variety writers.
This kind of tool and weapon in Albanian is called “Kmesa.” The Suli region and Suliots still use proudly the same weapon. This kind of tools and weapons are found only among Albanians.
The people of Suli or Suliots still live proudly in the same region, and as always, they still speak Albanian language. There are 31 tribes among the Suliots, and each tribe has its own leader. The leaders of the tribes form the assembly or the leadership of Suli. Every each Suliot or Suljas was a god for his family and his house. (Sabri Godo, pg 71, 72). On feminine frailty the Suliots were just as hard as the Albanians and on the slightest suspicion of adultery women were sewn up in sacks and thrown over the cliffs into the Acheron. (William Plomer, pg. 60). One French known artist, Louis Dupré, visited Janina and Corfu in March 1819, and he made some drawings of some Suljas, particularly he draw the portrate of on of the leaders, Photo Xhavellas. Louis Dupré described the Suliots. They were both very much struck by the likeness, and the model was very demonstrative and tried to convey by gestures his pleasure and astonishment. Then he suddenly took from his belt one of those little portable silver writing-sets which were often proudly carried by Albanians when just literate, and wrote his name at the side of his portrait. “Phot Suli”. (William Plomer, pg. 234).
The Suljas lived in their mountainous villages bound by the Albanian laws and customs based on the canon of Lek Dugagjini, and they worked and lived proudly in Suli. They did not want the Ottoman Turkey, and they did not pay the taxes to the Ottoman Turkey. Some of them were poor, and found their living by sealing from other people around Janina. The Russian and French agents and terrorists in priest’s uniform were visiting Suli, and expending their propaganda and terrorist mission among Suliots. They were teaching the people of Suli how to steal, sabotage, and how to perpetrate other criminal actions in Janina. The people of Suli were religious people and they believed the priests and their propaganda stories based on faith and God. A Russian priest was killed after an attempt to rape a widow in one of the villages in Suli.
The children of the widowed woman killed the Russian priest and threw him in the river of Acheron. The Suliots believing in word of god of the priests many of them volunteered to commit actions against the Ottoman Turkey and wound Ali Pasha. Ali Pasha was a friend one time with some Suliots, and he relieved them from taxes. Ali Pasha never took taxes or any other monetary tribute from Suliots. The frequent stealing and attacks of government caravans, rubbing of the houses, and other sabotages achieved the limit of the tolerance of the Pasha. Ali Pasha was getting angry and anxious about Suljas and their terrorist mission originated by the French and Russian terrorist priests. Ali Pasha punished some people from Suli, and the chiefs of the tribes in Suli got anxious on the behaviors of the government and the Pasha.

Suliot Malesor


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Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:24 am

The attacks of Suljas did not stop, the rubbery of the caravans passing near Suli were frequently rubbed. The Suli villages were only with one access, and passages threw and around Suli were not accessible very easy. The Russian and French priests using the freedom of the religion by Ali Pasha were going free to Suli villages. The mission of French and Russian terrorist priests was successful. This black mission was nothing more than to break the tolerance of the government and cause enough anger for the Suliots.

The fear of Napoleon and France averted the war with Ali Pasha , which war could be catastrophic loss for Napoleon and France, but they used their diplomatic intelligence full of promises and lying to convince Suliots to go in war against Ali Pasha. Suliots were convinced to get help for the war from French and Russians, and they started an offensive of sabotages of government objects, caravans, and gendarmeries or police. French and Russian were enjoying the Suljas’ activities against Ali Pasha. They made the Suliots, the warriors of the centuries, which was not true. This war was not as war that the French and the Russian were describing. The fear of Napoleon from Ali Pasha and his army made the Suliots the warriors of that time. The only defense for French and Russian was to create an internal war among Albanians. The alliance between Ali Pasha and England caused greater fear to France and Russia. Ali Pasha and Suljas finally started their war in spring 1790, which war will continue for the next 15 years causing a lot of damages to both sides, but mostly to Suliots who at the end joined Ali Pasha’s war against Ottoman Turkey.
It was spring of 1790 when Ali decided to launch his first attack on Suli. He sent an army of 5 000 men...(William Plomer, pg. 61) For Ali, the Suli must be broken down because it was on the hands of his enemy; it was a knife on the back for Ali Pasha because Suliots were always helped from Pasha. Ali Pasha wrote to the people and chieftans of Suli tribes, and asked them to stop the actions against him and his army. Also, Ali Pasha wrote a letter to each chief of Suli. The chiefs gathered in Suli and some of them did not believe Ali Pasha, and some of them wanted their freedom. Nevertheless, the chiefs remained as they were. The richest people of Suli were going in their land just to appear as they were looking their workers and slaves. Within a short time, they were hiding themselves in their houses form fear of Ali Pasha. The captains of Suli did not appear at all in the fields and valleys since the war started. Only women and the slaves were working their land. In spring of 1792, Ali Pasha raised his army appearing that his army was going to Gjirokastra, the army started marching toward Suli. Before the attack, Ali Pasha again wrote a letters to the captains of Suli. There was no respond from them. (Sabri Godo, pg 72) The French and Russians knew the strength of Ali Pasha, and they knew that a battle and a war against Ali Pasha will be catastrophic for Suliots. French and Russian did not care for Suliots neither for Ali Pasha because both were Albanians, and they were killing each other. It was time for Albanians to pay. Russians remembered Gjergj Kastriot Skenderbeu who killed the prince of Russia known as a White Devil and returned the land in dispute to the Ottoman Empire. It was the only way to revenge Albanians by creating rebellions and wars among them.
Some of the Suljas were of Muslim faith. One of the cousins of Captain Llambro Xhavella was a Muslim, and one of the cousins of Captain Gjergj Bochari was too Muslim. Both captains with 17 soldiers went to Ali Pasha, but they did not agree to any deal with Ali Pasha. The chiefs of Suljas threw down every deal with Ali Pasha. The Suljas did not get angry because every chief of a tribe had right to do whatever he wanted with his family. (Sabri Godo, pg. 72) The religion, for both the Suljas and Ali Pasha did not matter too much. Captain Xhavella was captured by Ali Pasha soldiers and tied up. Ali Pasha released him to go to Suli in order to negotiate with his native co-country man. Xhavella said that the jobs of Suli are not in his hand, but he is willing to go to Suli and tell them the massage of Ali Pasha. Ali asked what if you do not return. Xhavella answered that tomorrow morning will send his son on trust. Next morning, the 15 years old boy Photo Xhavella appeared in the custody of Ali Pasha. (Sabri Godo, pg 73) Later Xhavella wrote to Ali Pasha. “ Ali Pasha, I am glad to have deceived a traitor, and I am here to defend my country against a thief. My son will be put to death, but I shall desperately revenge him before I die. Some men, like you will say that I am a cruel father to sacrifice my son for my own safety, but I answer that if you had been able to take the mountain my son would have been killed together with all the rest of my family and my countryman, and then I could not have avenged his death. If we are victorious, I may beget other children: my wife is still young. And if my son, young as hi is, is not willing to be sacrificed for his country, then he is worthy neither to live nor to be acknowledged as my son. Advance, traitor, I am important for my revenge. I am your sworn enemy. Txavellas.”(William Plomer, pg. 64)
However, Ali Pasha released the boy and said, “ Say to your father that I do not war with boys.” The war started between Ali Pasha and Suljas taking too many lives of innocent Albanians until the end to be understood that was only a dirty game that French and Russians involved the Suliots in a misery. It is believed the war continued even 15 years between two Albanian rival groups. In the first battle, Ali Pasha last too many soldiers of Turkish background that were brought from Sultan for the wars against Venetians. The Suljas retrieved in their mountains, and their heroic war against Ali’s troops was heard as far as in London. At the same time, Ali attacked the city of Arta and victoriously occupied the city. The Pasha of Arta that was furnishing the Suliots with ammunition and guns was thrown down. From other neighboring enemies of Ali, Suliots got helped in ammunition and weapons. Many people who survived Hormova massacre, Gardhiqi massacre, and from other towns joined the battle of Suljas. (Sabri Godo, pg76)
Ali Pasha sent many presents to the Port and the news of the victory against Venetians to Selim III was very well accepted and welcomed. (Sabri Godo, pg 77). The wars in Butrint, Perveza, and other towns against the Venetians increased the name and the power of Ali Pasha in the Port of Istanbul, and Ali increased his territory. In the war, Venetians and Russians were brutally killed from the army of Ali Pasha.

Llambro Xhavela

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Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:28 am

The Suliots day by day were weaker and weaker. Ali Pasha had capabilities to destroy the entire Suli, but he had no great benefit of it. Suliots were living in mountains, and their bravery was known. Ali Pasha was a brave man himself, and he wanted them to join his army and revive the country of Gjergj Kastriot Seknderbeu and create Albania. In the other side, Ali Pasha kept the war with Suliots only to avert paying large tributes to Sultan. The Suoliots were surprised for being betrayed by French and Russian after all promises. The Suliots did not get much help from French and Russians. The fear of any war with Ali Pasha, Russia and France stopped all the humanitarian help to Suliots and cancelled all the contacts with them The region of Suli was under famine. People were poor and hangry. Many of them laid down the arms, and the fear left their homes, and some of them with ships from Corfu went to Italy, France, and other places. Ali Pashas’ two sons, Myftar and Veli were grown up, and they were leading the armies of his father. The army of Ali Pasha captured alive some Suliots, but Ali Pasha did not kill them. Ali wanted to destroy the force of 1500 men left in Suli. (Sabri Godo, pg 74.) Suliots did not give up, but they gave resistance to the Ali Pashas force. As high the army was going in the mountains, the more resistance from Suliots it was getting. The Suljas killed all the animals, even though the famine was in highest peak. The Suljas had no food, and no water to drink. (Sabri Godo, pg 75). Battle after battle, the Sulitos did not want to give up, but they were getting weakened. There were more Suljas than 1500 men, but not enough to resist an army of Ali Pasha.
Photo Xhavella, the son of Llambro Xhavella went to Corfu, and he asked for the help promised from French. He did not get the support that was promised to Suliots. Photo asked to get a temporary protection for the refugees of Suli, but this was not wanted by the local people and the French. They did not like the Suljas in the Corfu. (Sabri Godo, pg 143.) The people of the island of Corfu were Albanians, and they wanted to help to refugees. The island was governed by French, and the French military was punishing those who helped. It was punishable by death for helping the refugees from Suli. Photo Xhavella did not get any support from the French, and he was very disappointed.
Most of the villages of Suli were occupied by the army of Veli, and they were afraid that he might burn and destroy all the villages; they agreed to sign a piece and capitulation to Ali Pasha’s son Veli. On December 18, 1803, the chieftans signed the piece with Veli. All were agreed that the village of Kungi, and three other villages must give up their arms and immigrate to other places guarantied from Ali Pasha. Ali Pasha would provide them food and animals in other places. Next morning, people of those villages started to move in other areas. (Sabri Godo, pg 143, 144). Kungi in Albanian language means pumpkin. While the villages were moving, someone blows the depot of ammunition in the village of Kungi. The “Besa” trust was broken. The Bochars blew the depot and then started again the war. The officers of Ali Pasha’s armies, Myhyrdarin Aga and Beqir Lojtarin, the Sulijas were attacked and in the battle that lasted three days 200 Suljas were killed and 55 were captured alive. (Sabri Godo, pg. 144.) A priest of Russian origin whose name was Samuel talked about a dream, and he talked that Ali Pashas’ end. The priest Samuel refused to surrender; with five other men he stayed at Kungi, and blew up the fort as the enemy approached. (William Plomer, pg 112). The thirteen-year-old war with Suli was over. People of Suli were moving toward Corfu, and other places. Ali Pasha stood and looked sad on them and told them, “You can go whenever you want, but the foreign land will never keep you. Do not forget the words of your old men Gjergj to have a good relation and be a friend with me. ”For second times, Niko and Kicho Borchari were captured and brought in front of Ali. Ali released them. (Sabri Godo, pg. 145). The first refugees that started to move from Suli were of the tribe Bochar. Ali Pasha met with the chief of Bochars, Gjergj, in Llak, and spoke to him. Ali Pasha told to Gjergj, “Father Bochari you are the only man left in Suli to advise the Suliots, and they leasten you! ”No”, said the old man Gjergj. Ali Pasha continued, ”I have chosen you as the leader of Suli because only you can lead this place. Help me to form the future of your sons. ”The old man replied, “I am too old to lead the Suljas, but my family will be in your service.” Ali replied, “ Whole your life you have been protecting this soil and those stones. Now, help the Suli to get rebuilt, and convince Suljas to stay.” The old man was not surprised, with his shaky head thought that the Vezir was not asking him to kill his co-country men, but he was sure that Ali spoke clear with a good intention. Ali confirmed, “You are not a traitor of your people. You will help me to rebuild Suli. We are of one blood, and we have one language.” “Kicho with his 70 fighters will be in your side, and more than this I cannot do,” said the old Suliot. ( Sabri Godo, pg 128)
Foto Xhavella tash 24 vjeçar, dogji shtëpin e vet dhe u largua nga Suli. Ali Pasha premtoi se Suliotët do të jen oficer të ushtris së vet. Ali Pasha ndërtoi një pallat në Sul, dhe familja Buçare kujdeseshin për atë pallat. Foto Xhavella për inat të bashkvendasëve të vet, kur ndëgjoi se ata ishin oficer të ushtris të Ali Pashës, u këthye në Janinë dhe bisedoi me Ali Pashën. Pas takimit me Ali Pashën, Foto Xhavella u bë oficer në mesin e oficerave më të lart në ushtrin e Ali Pashës.(Fq. 129, Sabri Godo) Suliotët të lodhur, të varfër, dhe të mallzuar për Sulin, kontaktuan me Foton dhe u këthyen prapa, dualën para Ali Pashës dhe morën lejen të kthehen në Sul, dhe disa nga ata u bërën oficer në ushtrin e Ali Pashës. Maxhore Mosho, e ëma e Fotos u këthye në Janinë dhe u martua me tjetër bur.(Fq. 117, William Plomer)
Phot Xhavella, a twenty-four-year-old man, burned his house and left from Suli. Ali Pasha promised that he will make the Suljas officers of his army, and indeed, Ali made the Suljas officers of his army. Ali built a palace in Suli, and the palace was being looked by Bochars. Photo Xhavella in spite of his co- country men after hearing that the Suliots are being employed as high ranking officers of Ali Pasha returned to Janina and spoke to Ali Pasha. After the meeting, Photo Xhavella became one among the highest Ali Pasha’s officer. ( Sabri Godo, pg. 129). The other Suliots thought themselves ill-used, suffered from sickness and homesickness, and grew tired of exile. Some of them, led by Photo, went back to Janina, submitted to Ali, end entered his service. Major Moscho, mother of Photo went to Janiana, and she found a new husband there. ( William Plomer, pg. 117)

People of Epir sing the song:

Speak up, you, Marko Suliot
and, you Xhavella and Kundurioti,
hey you courage and heroic people of Albania
that the freedom you gave to Greece.

(Sabri Godo, pg. 253)




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Lady Emine Dies

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:32 am

Emine was the wife of Ali Pasha. For long time, she suffered from a sickness that no one new how to cure. Emine was and educated and honored lady of royal family. She was the daughter of Kaplan Pasha. Always kind, she behaved with a courtesy and a respect to everyone which left a big impression to everyone and mostly to Ali Pasha. Emine known as Um Gulsum was a woman of good heart. She was a rare beauty, and her nature of gentleness was very well accepted not only from Ali, but from all the people that she ever had contact. She was said to have been able at times to restrain Ali Pasha from an act of violence. (William Plomer, pg 110)
She said and pleased to Ali not to kill Suljas and expel them from their houses. When Ali was too angry, Emine was the one to calm him down. One day Ali was angry with Suliots, and lady Emine appeared in his office. Almost, she felt down when she got into the office. Ali rose and caught hear not falling down, and he sat her near himself. She was breathing very hard. The tears were flowing through her unwrinkled face. Emine was so ill, and she could not talk anymore. She was mumbling, and her words were not understandable. Ali rose and said, “I swear that I will kill and tore alive Tozoni, and other doctors if they do not find a cure for lady Emine. (Sabri Godo, pg. 136)
The condition of lady Emine was worsening. Um Gulsum was ill for ten days. Ali was spending every moment with her by keeping his hand on her forehead. Ali and the doctors could not help her. Ali believed that this was a punishment for all the killing of women in the lake, and the war and killing of Suliots. He was worried because his lovely wife was going in an unreturned journey. He could not stop this. (Sabri Godo, pg. 140)
She gazed at him with curious fixity, and suddenly had a stroke. Before morning she was dead. (William Plomer, pg. 110) Now, Ali Pasha was surviving a pain in his heart that he never experienced before. He wanted to keep something from her; but his heart was wounded badly; and Ali was unable to do anything. The death of lady Emine remained in the heart of Ali Pasha until his death. (Sabri Godo, pg. 142)

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The Palaces of Ali Pasha

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:36 am

Ali was extremely handsome man. He was a tall man with a straight body, and he had an air of frankness and honesty followed by humorous expression and smiling. Nothing was more characteristic than the vivacity guttural laugh, a trifle ogreish in its cheerfulness. (William Plomer, pg. 82) Ali Pasha almost all his life lived as an aristocrat. Naturally, Ali lived in great splendor. The title and the position made possible Ali Pasha to have a royal accommodation in his entire life. Always wanted to build palaces, and he enjoyed watching the process of building the palaces. He built a palace, almost, in any city.
The garrisons that Ali built were positioned in the most strategic points in Albania. In those garrisons, the Turkish and Albanian flags were placed on the doors. Ali Pasha used the Albanian flag that Gjergj Kastriot Skenderbeu used. All his life, he built palaces. Today, those palaces are performed into hotels and recreation centers by Gypsies or Greeks.
When first he went to Janina, he lived in a Castro Palace where he made numerous alterations and improvements. The palace in Tepelena, described by an English man as one of the most romantic and delightful country house imaginable, was built in a grand scale. (William Plomer, pg. 77)
Ali Pasha decided to build a castle or fortress, and it was named Litharica. (Sabri Godo, pg.48 ) Ali’s palace of Litharica was only about half mile from Castro and commanded every approach to the town: it stood on a solid stone base, and the upper stories were of wood brightly painted and somewhat Chinese appearance. (William Plomer, pg. 78 ) The fortress of Ali Pasha, Litharica, was small in size, and it occupied only 500m². The fortress, Litharica, stood as a peninsula lying on the lake. On the coast of the lake and the fortress Litharica, the remains of the walls of an ancient castle stood. (Sabri Godo, pg.48 )
On the outskirt of the town, Ali built a summer retreat in a garden full of fruit trees-oranges, lemons, figs, and pomegranates-with planes and cypresses besides. Some of those summer retreat are being used by Gypsies or Greeks that forcefully have taken from Albanians. The live periods ruled by emperor, king, ruler, or Pasha left beautiful buildings and palaces. Like every emperor, and Ali Pasha left beautiful palaces that symbolize his time.

The fortress, Litharica, in Janina

The palace of Ali Pasha in Himara

The hall in Litharica


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Vasilike, the New Wife of Ali Pasha

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:37 am

After the death of lady Emine, Ali Pasha was very lonely and very sad. He felt lonely in his room, and many times during the night he woke up and cried for Emine. Many times during the night, Ali Pasha visited the grave of his lady, Emine. (Sabri Godo, pg. 142)

While in his wars of conquering the villages, Ali Pasha experienced the good and the evil. When Ali Pasha started an expedition against the village of Plichivitza, his soldiers surrounded the place at night, caught the coiners red - handed among their moulds and melting pots, and ordered a massacre. When it had begun, a ravishingly lovely young girl of twelve named Vaslike, managed to dodge the soldiers and came and threw herself at Ali’s feet and begged his protection for her mother and brothers. He was so taken with her that he ordered them to be spared, and carried of to Janina, where she became a special object of his attentions and later his wife. (William Plomer, pg. 121)
Again, Ali Pasha proved himself as a good ruler and as a mannered person. He knew what an evil is, and he new what a good is. Ali allowed Vasilike to keep her religion and maintain a little oratory in the palace where the priests came to officiate. She had now grown up to be, in the words of M. Remerand, a large and beautiful woman with a white complexion, black eyes and eyebrows, and superb head of hair, and had succeeded in retaining the Vizier’s affections longer than any other member of her sex, except Emine, had succeeded in doing before. Ali now decided to marry her, whom he did with great circumstance and Janina was once more given over wedding festivities. The streets were choked with people and beasts of burden harrying presents. Even the women of the poorest village brought a little honey of firewood. (William Plomer, pg 227) But, there was no celebration. Ali Pasha accepted the presents, but it was the first time that he did not see the side of the economy and merchandise. When Ali Pasha was 73 years old, Ali marries the 18-year-old Vasilike Kondakchiun. There were no ceremonies, and people still do not know why this wedding happened in this way. In April 5, 1816, the canons shell 21 times, and the bells on the churches run all over Epirus. (Sabri Godo, pg. 240)
Vasilike lived happy with Ali, and she gave birth to his third son, Sali. Vasilike was an Albanian or Arvanitis. She spoke with a gentle fluency the Albania language. Also, she was fluent in Turkish and Gypsy or Greek language. Vasilike spoke more languages like Italian and English, but she was not fluent; she spoke a little in French language. Young and beautiful, she was way too intelligence for her age. Her behaviors were exemplary. She new to behave very good with Ali Pasha’s sons, Myftar and Veli, and she respected their wives and their children. Even though Ali Pasha married her, he never forced or asked her to change her religion. She remained until the end of her life as a Christian woman. Her happiness was interrupted and destroyed from the war of Ottoman Turks against Ali Pasha. For three years in the row, Vasilike stood beside her husband in the fortress of Litharica.

After Ali Pasha was murdered, Vasilike stood brave, even though she was traumatized after experiencing a massacre in her own house. She did not cooperate at all with Turkish askers. Under an arrest, she was taken to Istanbul. Later, she returned in Albania after she was completely free. Vasilke retired to the house that her husband had built for her in the city of Trikala. Young and pretty, she had numerous offers of marriage from very wealthy Albanians, Turks, Gypsies or Greeks, and others, but she turned them all down. She said, “There’s no living for the widow of Ali Pasha.” (William Plomer, pg. 278.) She was widow and lonely for the rest of her life. In 1835, the 37 years old Vasilike Hysein died. The last years of her life were spent near Missolonghi where she took to drink and died at 1835. (William Plomer, pg. 278.)

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Ali Pasha Rebellions Against Turkish Empire

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:38 am

The territory of Ali Pasha was big, and the population was 1.5 million. People of Christian and Jewish faith were not paying taxes to the Vizier. The Ottoman Turkish Empire was not collecting taxes, and it was not taking soldiers from the people that were not believers of Muslim faith. This was prohibited in holly Koran. Also, this was practiced and respected by Ali Pasha. The government was systematically collecting the taxes from people of Muslim religion, and the shopping places build by Ali Pasha. Also, the variety stores, and other small manufacturing enterprises were not left without being taxed. The wealth of the Vizier was increasing every day parallel to his spending. Ali Pasha was stronger and wealthier every day, but the Vizier was also obligated to pay his debt to Sultan. Only five million piaster were going to the Port as a present.(Sabri Godo pg. 134) In addition, Ali Pasha sent many presents to the relatives and friends of Sultan. The Vizier’s expenses were enormous, what with the maintenance of his army and his personal establishment, the sending of vast sums to Constantinople in the way of tribute, presents and bribes, and building of forts, castle, country houses, mosques and even churches; but his wealth was even more enormous, consisting of accumulated cash (150 millions of piaster are said to be moved from the strong rooms at Tebeleni at the time of fire), besides jewelers, valuables, and landed property, with revenue pouring in from his hundreds of manors and domains, and the usual exactions and spoliations. (William Plomer, pg. 241)
Ali paid to Sultan a wealth to be never returned. He paid only because Sultan appointed him as Vizier, but Ali achieved his title with his effort. For all his life, Ali sent a huge amount of money and innumerous gifts to Sultan that never to be understood why he was sending. So, Ali decided to reduce the money to the Port. He reduced his payments and gifts to Sultan. This reduction bothered a lot to Sultan Mahmoud II, who was described as the killer of his father. Sultan and the Port new very well Ali Pasha was collecting far more wealth, and his strong military was increasing. In addition, the Port new that Ali Pasha and Kara Mahmoud Pasha were friends. The territory that Kara Mahmoud Pasha ruled was far bigger than the territory of Ali Pasha. The population was almost double. It is believed that in the territory of Kara Mahmoud Pasha lived 2.75 million people.
In the northeastern side, another Albanian was ruling a territory populated of 1.25 million people. His name was Mustafa Pasha of Babuna. He ruled the cities of Shkupi (Skopje), Manastir, Ohri, Demir Hisar, Kavardar, Shtip, Prilep, Veles, Stermica, Dorjan and other cities. In the northern part including today’s Belgrade, Pashas of Albanian origin were ruling. From the river Danube all the way to Crete, the population was Albanian. It is impossible to find the exact number of Albanian Population in this time, but it is believed that 8.5 to 10 million Albanian people lived in Balkans in the time of Ali Pasha. This fact was very well known to France and Napoleon, England, Russia and to Germany. In 1700, United Kingdom was populated only with 3 million people. In that time, the population of Russia was 18 to 26 million people.
Napoleon Bonaparte was afraid and shaky every time when the name of Ali Pasha was mentioned. Napoleon new for any military action or war with Ali Pasha would be an end for France and Napoleon. Napoleon and France will disappear forever. In addition, it will trigger the old alliance among England, Russia, and Turkey. Napoleon and France averted the war with Ali Pasha, but they used the intelligence and diplomacy to cause wars and rebellions in the territory of Ali Pasha. In addition, they used their diplomatic complaining to create misunderstandings and angriness between Istanbul and Janina. France and Russia while paying huge sums to the priests created the war between Suliots and Ali Pasha that lasted 13 to 15 years. Very often, France started to complain to the Port against Ali Pasha of Janina. The Ottoman Turkish ambassador was being called by high administrators and foreign French ministry almost every day, and it was given and told a lot of true and non true complains and stories against Ali Pasha of Janina.
France used the diplomacy to stop the creation of a strong and powerful Albania. The French diplomacy created fake arguments about an existing military pact between Ali Pasha and England. Napoleon convinced his beautiful cousin to spend few nights with the Turkish ambassador in France. The Turkish ambassador was delighted with her behaviors. At the same time, the French ambassador in Istanbul was handling protests and complaints to the Port against Ali Pasha of Janina. Complains were mounting to the Port against Ali Pasha. Almost every day, the French ambassador in Istanbul was distracting Sultans enjoyments with his complaints against the Pasha of Janina. France and Napoleon were aware for the fear of the Port and Sultan of any independence declaration by Ali Pasha or Kara Mahmoud Pasha.
In that time, Albania was known only for its coastal cities on the Adriatic Sea and Jon Sea described in the books of Shakespeare and some other writers. For Europe and world, Albania was a taboo country and a place that could not be gone. England sent the monarch to visit Albania. Lord George Gordon known as Child Harold Byron visited Albania of Ali Pasha. Byron did not visit the other Albanian territories ruled by Kara Mahmoud Pasha and Mustafa Pasha of Babuna. England and Europe believed that in these lands one cannot step. Albania and Albanians known as the best warriors became a hidden threat for England, which threat never was revealed. Even though the diplomatic relation between Ali Pasha and England was in the highest level, the creation of independent Albania was not in the favor of England. The English kept very good diplomatic relation with Ali Pasha, but they helped more to other people under the umbrella of the war against the Ottoman Empire. Byron was directly ordered form the English Kingdom to assist Gypsies or Greek people for independence. Byron, as a true patriot, helped to Gypsies or Greeks for their independence until his death; even though, the Gypsies or Greek people do not care or have any respect for him. Today, the islands in the Aegean Sea are private property of some English Men. Greece declared independence from Ottoman Turkey in 1913, one year after Albania. In the assembly, it was voted which is going to be the official language, Albanian or Greek language. The Greek or Gypsy language won for one vote from Albanian language, and it became official language. It was the vote of an Albanian sold soul. Greece and Greek or Gypsy people perpetrated massacres of innocent people that did not speak Gypsy or Greek language. Albanian Muslim, Catholic, and Jewish were murdered and massacred mostly. The Albanian Jewish left Greece, but Muslim and Catholic Albanians were forcefully taken out. Greece has committed ethnic cleansing. Today, 120 000 Albanians are not allowed to return to their own houses and property by the fascist government of Greece. What a shame for European Union to have a member like Greece. It is bigger embarrassment for EU for not solving this issue or attempting to solve the problem.

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Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:40 am

Russia did not like Albanians ever, and it was not in the favor of Russia a creation of a strong and powerful Albania. The fear of not getting occupied, Russia took serious steps in stopping the creation of Albania. Potemkin captured an Albanian soldier of Ali Pasha, and he demanded money for his release. Ali Pasha paid the money and the soldier was released. Ali Pasha and Potemkin met and discussed the possibility of acceptance by Russia the independence of Albania. Potemkin and his soldiers paid hundred times more than Ali paid. According to some stories, Potemkin lost 15000 soldiers within a week. In the lost duels of Russian princes and Turkish princes, Potemkin and Russia were well aware that the Turkish princes in duels were of Albanian origin. Russia used the Slavic slaves in Balkan, and they convinced them to perpetrate and damage the Albanians governors. The other European countries were afraid and felt threatened by a creation of united Albania. When Ottoman Turkish Empire withdrew the army from Balkans in 1900, Russia sent 500 000 to 800 000 soldiers to attack no protected Albanian population. The Russian soldiers hiding behind the story of the war against Turkish, they committed mass ethnic cleansing and genocide. Albanians were forced to change their language and convert in to orthodox Christians. Anyone who disagreed was brutally massacred. In the cities such as Belgrade, Nish, Aleksin, and other cities, Albanians were massacred. Small numbers of Albanians have changed their language and religion, and they lived. Small number of Albanians was able to take just their personal belongings and documents, and they have run to survive. In this time, the service man or the slaves of Slavic origin told to their bosses to sign their property to the Slavic slaves; they would protect their property and wealth. The wealth and property was melted down to the Slavic people known today as Serbians. Albanians from Vojvodina and south of the river Danube left toward save places only with personal jewelry and documents. The property was signed to the Slavic slaves in trust. Mostly, the Albanians settled in South where Albanian armies were stronger. The facts prove that Albanians from the northern cities such as Toplica, and other cities left their properties in order to avoid being killed by Russian Terrorists. This to Europe is known, but it is in the favor of Europe to be free of Muslim people.
Ali Pasha continued to reduce the payments to the Port. He was always complaining about things in Epirus were not going well. In addition, he was complaining of his illness and age. Indeed, Ali Pasha was ill of a sickness that no doctor new to cure. Ali was having headaches while he was lying on his bed and the doctors never found the cause of this illness. (Sabri Godo, pg. 141) The complaints were not creating sympathy of the Port toward Ali Pasha because it was not in the interest of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Ali Pasha was on his 70’s, and with a special bravery started his rebellion against the Empire. He was concentrated mostly in the wars with French and Suliots. Ali Pasha was getting older and older, and his age was increasing. The union of Ali Pasha, Kara Mahmoud Pasha, Mustafa Pasha Babuna, and Suliots is known as the starting period of the war against Ottoman Turkish Empire and declaration of Albanian independence. The Port and Sultan were afraid of this union. First, they attacked and destroyed Kara Mahmoud Pasha. Later, they attacked Ali Pasha. Mustafa Pasha Babuna deserted and betrayed his friends. Ali and Mahmoud said, “O you Mustafa Pasha of Babuna! You did not betray anyone, but yourself; and you left a custom to the people of your territory to betray each other…” Shortly, the head of Mustafa Pasha of Babuna was found in public display in Istanbul.
All the Albanians joined the war of Ali Pasha against Ottoman Turks. In addition, the foreign united diplomatic effort of France, Russia, England, and the war of Turkish Empire against Ali Pasha stopped the creation of Albania.
In that time, Ali Pasha paid doctors and alchemists to find a way of producing gold and silver. The land of Ali Pasha was producing silver and gold, and the Pasha was paying in gold. In addition, Ali Pasha paid alchemists and other scientists to find the immortality. Like every emperor, Ali Pasha did not find the way of being immortal. The most important thing that Ali Pasha did in Janina was the opening of the informal university for high education in Albanian, Turkish, Gypsy or Greek and Italian language. In this institution, the high educated people were working. Albanians educated their children in this university. The military academies were educating and training Albanian officers. All this education made possible to Ali Pasha to get advised and informed by high educated people. One time, Ali Pasha dined with Sir Thomas (Maitland). He dined with Sir Thomas (Maitland) and entered the room art the head of twelve little men, professors, in black, with powdered heads, bandy legs, cocked hats under their short arms, and snuffboxes in hand. (William Plomer, pg. 201) The education pushed Albanians to support Ali Pasha and his initiative for independent Albania. The main purpose and intention of Ali Pasha was to establish a strong, secured, and independent state of Albania. In which state, he would be chosen Sultan or King. Ali Pasha participated in the meeting of Perveza organized by the Association of Friends in 1820. The Friendly Society was holding a meeting in 1820, and he always kept in touch with the leader of Albanians - Greek rebellion, Paparigopoulos. (William Plomer, pg. 247) On May 23, 1820, Ali Pasha called all Albanian and Greek chiefs in Litharica where was decided to range a war against the Ottoman Turkish Empire. (Sabri Godo, pg. 260)
The Albanians were the ones who paid mostly to the Ottoman Turkish Empire, and the Albanians were the ones mostly to be harmed from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. The old and brave Ali Pasha starts the war for Albania, and he brought the freedom to the entire Balkan Peninsula. Farewell to all the brave women and men, who have given their lives for the homeland, Albania.

The territory of Ali Pasha

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Ali Pasha’s End

Post  AuLoNa on Sat Jan 31, 2009 10:41 am

Every start has its end. The Ottoman Turkish Empire held the Balkans for more than five centuries. The Osmanlis by making Pashas and Viziers with turbans and treacheries gathered their treasuries. Sultan did not want a Pasha to rule a huge territory, but he wanted a person to gather and send the wealth to the port of Istanbul. The Ottoman Turks new very well the Pasha of Janina and his territory, and they were afraid of any possible declaration of independence or kingdom. He was killing the Russians, one time allay of Turkish Empire, and attacking the French in the other side. The English were in a good relation with Ali Pasha, and Ali Pasha got help from Britain in form of ammunition, guns, and other support. There were no fights ever between England and Ali Pasha. The alliance and the good relationship between English and Ali Pasha were not accepted well by the Ottoman Turkey because of the fear of any independence declaration. Therefore, the Ottoman Turkish Empire did not like the Pasha of Janina. This was very well known to France and Napoleon.
The French diplomacy used anxious complaints to cause enough angriness to Sultan for Ali Pasha. The complains against Ali Pasha of Janina were pouring into the Port, and the Port of Istanbul ordered Ali to come to the Port within forty days and give an account of himself, though it can hardly have been expected that he would obey. (William Plomer, pg. 244) Every each Pasha that went to visit Sultan, his head remained in Istanbul, and this was very well known to Ali. Ali Pasha always was in a good relationship with other Albanian brave men. Ali Pasha called together a conference of Albanian and Greek chieftains, and in an artful recruiting speech appealed to them for help against their common enemy, the Turks. (William Plomer, pg. 245) With this conference, Ali Pasha declared a war to Turkey, and confirmed the allegations against him done by the other Pashas and by France. The Ottoman Turkey used his old enemies.
The port gave a chance to another Albanian whose name was Ismail and who was also a sworn enemy of Ali Pasha of Janina. Ismail, who was a friend of Veli, arrived with 20 000 Turkish soldier to attack Ali Pasha’s castle of Lathirica. (William Plomer, pg. 250) The main body of Ali’s consisting of 15 000 soldiers. Omer Bay Vrioni deserted to the enemy. Two other divisions followed their example, and Omer was given the title Vizier as a reward for his treachery. (William Plomer, pg. 251) On May 25, 1820, Omer Bay Vrion with his 4000 soldiers left from the castle of Ali Pasha. (Sabri Godo, pg 305) The fear and the carrier for one title ruled in that time too. This war of Ali Pashas with Sultan was a result of foreign forces.
The ambassador of France in Istanbul was complaining very often and almost every week. The secretary of state of France, Skampan, called the Turkish ambassador and protested to the Turkish government; he complained about the Ali Pashas’ behaviors in islands of Corfu, and requested from Turkish to stop Ali Pasha’s ship to blockade the entrance to Corfu. The secretary of state told to the ambassador that Ali Pasha was dealing with English by creating a secret plan for an attack against Turkey. Napoleon Bonaparte called personally the ambassador and threatened that if the Sultan does not stop Ali Pasha’s bothering, he will send a 100 000 soldiers to attack Epirus. Ali Pasha answered to each request and complained to Port of Istanbul and dismissed all the allegations of France. In May 5, 1809, Turkey and England signed peace treaty which treaty was Ali Pasha’s work. (Sabri Godo, pg. 186)
With a special degree signed by Napoleon Bonaparte, the Albanian refugee regiment was created in Corfu. The island of Corfu has been always populated by Albanians. The regiment was consisted from 3250 Albanian soldiers who were wearing French huts and Albanian national clothing. The regiment was located in town of Leukad. Ali Pasha attacked the island, and the Albanian regiment immediately turned their weapons against French. The English general Oswald attacked from the other side and occupied the island. General Oswald personally went to Ali Pasha and thanked him on his name and on the name of the British kingdom. The ambassador of France in Istanbul was protesting to Sultan, and he proved that Ali was collaborating with English military. The Port promised to French Ambassador that is going to take action against Ali Pasha. (Sabri Godo, pg. 199) Paquewil, the French consul in Janina, personally protested to Ali Pasha. Ali Pasha yelled and shouted on him. The condition of the other islands of Corfu was worsening. The French were getting mad, and complaining to Sultan
Napoleon Bonaparte decided to announce a war against Ali Pasha. Paquewil knew that the relation between Napoleon and Ali will never go right because Napoleon felt to keep his promise of returning the islands of Corfu in Jonian Sea. Napoleon asked from the French foreign ministry the list of all the offending by Ali Pasha to Paquewil, France, and Napoleon. The list was huge, with all the names of killed French officers, offends against France and Napoleon, the blockade of the sea, and stated that the consul in Janina is only being a slave. (Sabri Godo, pg. 200) Sultan indirectly was telling to the French ambassador that he has no reason to stop Napoleon of attacking Ali Pasha, and he will be pleased if that thing happened. Napoleon knew that if Ali is being attacked in Janina, than Ali Pasha would be helped by England and the other Turkish army, which will lead to the old coalition Turkey, England, and Russia. (Sabri Godo, pg. 201) In war against Ali, Napoleon and France would be finished for ever. Ali Pasha very easily was able to raise an army of 50 000 soldiers within a short period of time. In addition, Ali Pasha was helped by England, and he could raise even a bigger army of 150 000 soldiers. It was possible based on the population of Epirus. Napoleon new that Albanians are chosen as the best soldiers in Turkish Empire. The Albanian soldier was more capable to survive in any war than a non Albanian soldier. The Albanian soldier was more economical; with a bag of flour and hand of salt, he could survive for one week under any weather conditions. The officers were the same as their soldiers. One small regiment of 200 - 300 soldiers could live for weeks in forest without any help. The Albanian soldiers were using the military tactics learned from their private lives, and they were trained as guerrilla of high rank. They had a talent for revealing the danger, or they had feelings to predict the danger. Thus, the Albanian soldiers were the most dangerous soldiers of the time. Napoleon and the foreigners’ new very well that Ali Pasha might be defeated with several battles, but later would be attacks from small guerilla companies similar to George Kastriot Skenderbay. (Sabri Godo, pg. 202)

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